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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 21, No. 1 June 2014

Work-Life Balance and Manager Performance in Bangladesh
A. K. M. Mominul Haque Talukder & Margaret H. Vickers
School of Business
University of Western Sydney
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The current interest in work–life balance (WLB) emanates from the perception that extreme workplace demands can have negative consequences for employees in other important life spheres such as family and leisure. Changes in society that increase the numbers of individuals with significant responsibilities both at home and at work have fuelled further inquiry into the interdependencies between work and home life. Much of the work-life research has been conducted in Western countries, so it is unknown whether theories, models and findings are valid in other settings despite the few studies from emerging economies such as Asia and Africa. The present study examined the effect of the determinants of WLB on individual performance in a developing country’s context. Data were collected from a large logistic firm to identify the link between work environment, work pressure, discrimination, leave options, flexible work hours, employee benefits, and individual performance. Results revealed positive relationships of work environment, leave options, flexible work hours, and employee benefits with individual performance while it was negatively related to discrimination and work pressure. The findings suggested that a pragmatic work-life balance is required to have an increased level of performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Performance, work environment, work pressure, work-life balance.

The Islamic Hedging Management: Paving the Way for Innovation in Currency Options
Nadhirah Nordin
Faculty of Islamic Contemporary Studies
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Asmak Ab. Rahman
Academy of Islamic Studies
Universiti Malaya
Hydzulkifli Hashim Omar
Islamic Business School
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Islamic hedging is one of the most important tools for risk management. Currency options contracts are commonly regarded as one of the useful tools of risk management and frequently used to reduce risk associated with the movement in price and currency risk. This article attempts to review the suitability of the Islamic currency options in one of the Islamic banks in Malaysia as a hedging mechanism and highlights Shariah issues pertaining to the structures. Currency options are prohibited in Islamic finance due to the issue of riba and to the violation of the bay al-sarf rule which requires currency trading to be done on “spot” basis only. Options contract is also rejected by some scholars because of premium payment or chargeable fees to the right. In view of the overwhelming importance of currency risk management in the volatile market, the application of Shariah principles in currency market faces a great challenge to Islamic scholars today. Based on the observation of the bank’s official information disclosed to the public and the interview conducted, the finding of this research indicates that the bank permitted currency options based on the principle of tawwaruq (commodity murabahah) or bay al-inah and wa’ad (unilateral promise) which are strictly used for hedging purposes. Tawwaruq and wa’ad principles have given Islamic financial institutions the opportunity to structure Shariah compliant financial products and meet the objective of increasing trading volume and liquidity in order to reduce transaction cost and risk.
Keywords: Islamic hedging, options, currency trading, tawarruq, wa’ad.

Managerial Competencies and Small Business Growth: Empirical Evidence From Microfinance Participants
Syamsuriana Sidek & Mohd Rosli Mohamad
Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
A large number of studies have been conducted on small business performance. However, potential influence of managerial competencies on small business growth, particularly among microfinance participants is hardly existent. In fulfilling the literature gap, this study provides some insight into the relationship between managerial competencies and small business growth. Using data collected from microfinance participants in Kelantan and Terengganu and applying the Structural Equation Modelling approach, this study found that all the managerial competency dimensions – technical, generic and conceptual skills – had positive and significant impacts on small business growth. While consolidating the theories that managerial competencies explain business growth, this study has several limitations. Future studies should delve into, through qualitative research, why managerial skills are significant for small business growth. Sampling should also include small businesses in other parts of Malaysia, instead of Kelantan and Terengganu.
Keywords: Small business, growth, management competencies, generic skills, technical skills, Conceptual Skills, Microfinance.

Important Role of Self-Efficacy in Determining Entrepreneurial Orientations of Malay Small Scale Entrepreneurs in Malaysia
Rohani Mohd, Badrul Hisham Kamaruddin, Salwana Hassan & Mazzini Muda
Faculty of Business Management
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Khulida Kirana Yahya
School of Business Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The purpose of the study is to understand the role of self-efficacy in influencing entrepreneurial orientations of small scale Malay entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial orientations are consistently found to influence performance quite positively. Therefore, the understanding of how strong self-efficacy influences entrepreneurial orientations would also help in identifying ways to improve the performance of small scale businesses. There was a lack of research to see what drives business owners to choose among the entrepreneurial orientations, while there were so many researches conducted to see the impact of entrepreneurial orientations on performance. Thus, finding what influences entrepreneurial orientations would be a significant contribution to the field of entrepreneurship. The samples comprised of 162 small scale Malay SMEs in the manufacturing industry in all the states of Malaysia. The Rasch Measurement Model was used for the purpose of construct reliability and validity. In order to identify the influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial orientations and its two dimensions (proactivity and innovativeness), a simple linear regression and independent-t test were undertaken by using the SPSS as a tool. The findings indicated that self-efficacy was significantly related to entrepreneurial orientation and self-efficacy of the Malay entrepreneurs has affected innovativeness more strongly than the proactive dimension of entrepreneurial orientations. The independent-t test also was able to identify that Malay entrepreneurs withwith low self-efficacy. The findings give important implications to management consultants whose clients are SMEs to design training modules that specifically focus on developing self-efficacy among average performing SMEs because self-efficacy was found to improve the entrepreneurial orientations of entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Self-efficacy, entrepreneurial orientations, innovativeness and proactivity.

The Effects of Over, Required and Under-Education on Earnings in Manufacturing Sector in Malaysia
Zainizam Zakariya
Faculty of Management and Economics
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper presents returns to education by taking into account the quality of jobs match held by workers in the manufacturing sector of Malaysia. This type of study is quite rare not only in the country but also across developing nations. Using the Second Malaysia Productivity Investment Climate Survey (PICS-2), nearly 20 per cent and 30 per cent of workers employed in jobs for which they are overeducated and undereducated, respectively. Further findings indicated that over-education is more acute amongst highly-educated workers whilst under-education is more evident for lowly educated workers. By gender, women have a higher proportion of over-educated workers compared to men. Consequently, over-education leads to lower productivity in terms of earnings. In the study, augmented Mincer earnings equation, i.e. the ORU model clearly showed that although returns to surplus education was positive ( ), the return was lower thanthe returns to required education ( ), approximately 6 per cent against 10 per cent. This means that overeducated workers earn significantly lower than their co-workers who are in similar jobs but who have less education, but well matched. Moreover, the ORU model signified that returns to required education was much greater than returns to actual educational attainment. All of these implied that the rate of return to education depends on the allocation of skills over jobs where earnings is not fully embodied but is (partly) determined by job characteristics and/or by the quality of the match between skills supplied by the worker and skills required by the job. Nevertheless, the situation of over-education among highly educated workers in the Malaysian labour market may impede the country’s intention to move toward the state of being a high-income country, as outlined in the “New Economic Model” blueprint, since it reduces individuals’ productivity.
JEL Classifications: J24, J31
Keywords: Over-education, required education, surplus education.

Community Demands and Resources and Work-Family Conflict: Case Study in Kuching Sarawak
Zaiton Hassan, Nor Afiza Hasnan & Surena Sabil
Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Most studies on work-life balance only examine work and family domains. While work is the only role in its domain, life consists of many aspects besides family. However, research on other roles is still very limited. This study examines the influence of community (neighbour, neighbourhood, relatives, friends), and participation in Non-Government Organisations (NGOs), demands, and resources on work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC). Questionnaires were distributed to 506 employees from six public and private organisations in Kuching, Sarawak. Data were analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using AMOS Version 20. The findings showed that WFC was negatively related with demands from neighbours, relatives, and friends; and positively related with demands from participating in NGOs and resources from neighbours. FWC was negatively related with demands from neighbours, relatives, and friends; and positively related with resources from neighbours and relatives. This study provided evidence that community domain influences the WFC and FWC. Thus, organisations should consider the community domain in formulating strategies to minimise WFC and FWC experienced by the employees.
Keywords: Work-family conflict, family-work conflict, community demands, and resources.

Perspektif Persekitaran Rogers dengan Penerimaan Teknologi dan Umur Sebagai Moderator
Surendran Sankaran & Norazlinda Saad
Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan dan Bahasa Moden
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti pengaruh faktor perspektif persekitaran Rogers dengan penerimaan teknologi perisian kursus serta mengkaji peranan umur sebagai moderator. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah tinjauan. Populasi kajian ini adalah 490 orang guru Matematik yang mengajar Tingkatan 1 di Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan harian. Sampel kajian ini telah dipilih dengan menggunakan persampelan kluster dan persampelan rawak. Soal selidik kajian ini diadaptasi dari sumber-sumber lain dan mengandungi 15 item. Soal selidik kajian ini mempunyai tahap kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi dengan nilai Alpha 0.96. Data kuantitatif dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif, Korelasi Pearson dan Analisis Regresi Berganda. Berdasarkan Jadual Peringkat Penerimaan oleh Moersch (1995), guru Matematik yang mengajar Tingkatan 1 berada pada peringkat penerapan. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa faktor perspektif persekitaran mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap tahap penerimaan perisian kursus. Analisis regresi berganda hierarki menunjukkan pemboleh ubah umur, sebagai moderator telah memberi pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap hubungan antara faktor perspektif persekitaran dengan tahap penerimaan perisian kursus. Kajian ini menjelaskan bahawa interaksi antara umur guru dengan faktor perspektif persekitaran perlu diberi penekanan dalam pendifusian inovasi tersebut supaya dapat meningkatkan lagi tahap penerimaan perisian kursus.
Kata kunci: Pendifusian teknologi, perisian kursus, tahap penerimaan.

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