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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 20, No. 2 December 2013

Work and Family: The Perception of Balance Among Female Teachers in Northern Malaysia
Azelin Aziz
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Artemis Chang
School of Management
Queensland University of Technology
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Women’s participation in paid employment has become a common scenario even in non-western developing countries. For example in Malaysia, the trend is growing although the traditional gender role remains strong in Malaysian society. Even though working, women are still expected to assume major responsibilities at home. Thus, as opposed to men, women in this society face the challenge to satisfactorily balance work and family. This study was carried out to explore how Malaysian women perceive the meaning of a balanced work-family life. Sampling women teachers, the interview findings revealed that work-family balance was mainly perceived in terms of an individual’s ‘ability to fulfill role obligation’ appropriately in both the work and family domains. A few participants also viewed balance in the context of role satisfaction and role interference. Overall, the results support the assumption in the literature that perceptions of work-family experience are not universal, rather, the construct of work-family balance is culture-specific.
Keywords: Work-family interface, cross-culture, role demands.

Prioritizing of Criteria in Teacher-Candidate Selection Process by Analytic Hierarchy Process
Maznah Mat Kasim, Razamin Ramli, Haslinda Ibrahim, Mohd Izam Ghazali, Fazillah Mohmad Kamal @ S.Vikneswari
UUM College of Arts & Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper reviews and identifies the criteria used in the teacher-candidate selection process. The identified main criteria and sub-criteria were prioritized according to their importance by a group of experts. The literature was the source of the criteria and twelve experts who have experience in teacher-selection process were asked to justify the criteria obtained from the secondary source. Furthermore, these experts evaluated the relative importance of the identified criteria in a pair-wise manner. Their judgments were analysed by a multi-criteria method, known as the Analytic Hierarchy Process.
Three main criteria were identified which consisted of ‘content of knowledge’, ‘communication skills’ and ‘personality’, while each of these three main criteria had four, six and eight sub-criteria respectively. The degree of importance which is known as weights of these criteria were also calculated where those criteria which receive higher values are considered to be more important. Generally, the results of the analysis show that ‘communication skills’ and ‘personality’ are the most and second-most important criteria respectively, followed by ‘content of knowledge’ in the third position. The analysis of the importance of the sub-criteria of these three main criteria is also included.
These criteria and the weights can be used later in the development of the teacher-selection model. Both secondary data and primary data were used in this research. All the experts or the respondents have experience in the selection process where 40% of them have more than six years’ experience.
Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), importance, multi-criteria, selection, teacher, weights.

Catalytic Social Entrepreneurship to Combat Desperate Poverty: A Systems Approach
Oswald A. J. Mascarenhas
Aloysius Institute of Management and Information Technology (AIMIT)
St. Aloysius College (Autonomous)
Ram Kesavan & Michael D. Bernacchi
College of Business Administration
University of Detroit Mercy
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Any credible agenda that seeks to eradicate global poverty must seek to correct the structural injustices and inequities that cause and perpetuate desperate endemic poverty. Such an agenda must aim not merely to aid the poor with grants, welfare and subsidies, but it must primarily seek to enhance the capabilities, skills, access and opportunities of the marginalized to participate on more equitable terms, in the dynamic process of overall economic growth. We apply a systems approach to poverty, the latter itself being a pernicious system. Eradication of global desperate poverty and its unjust structural causes can be done through two concurrent systems-thinking based strategies: (a) micro catalytic social entrepreneurship that leads to catalytic innovations that alleviate poverty, and (b) macro social catalytic political entrepreneurship that radically innovates legislation or designs macro-policy intervention systems that can effectively dismantle existing unjust structures of social injustice and inequities – the causes that perpetuate endemic global poverty. Using the theories of catalytic innovations and the bottom of the pyramid, we focus on solution (a) as being feasible, viable and doable and in the long run having the potential for eradicating global desperate poverty. We also provide two case studies where solution (b) was effectively implemented. The main proposition of the paper is that the use of both micro- and macro- catalyst can help alleviate poverty in the world.
Keywords: Micro catalyst, macro catalyst, global poverty, system approach, catalytic innovation, macro-policy intervention.

Changing Trend of Capital Flows: The Case of India
Shailesh Gandhi
IIM, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
Hemantkumar P. Bulsara & Vaishali S. Dhingra
S V National Institute of Technology, Gujarat, India
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Many countries witnessed enormous increases in international capital mobility after globalization. This, in turn, has improved economic integration among emerging economies and developed nations. The trend of these cross country flows of capital discloses that non-debt creating private capital flows are dominating the official flows which come in the form of official grants and private debt flows. Moreover, the portfolio equity investment which shows tremendous growth has exposed individual countries to the risk of improved volatility and sudden stops. These trends, driven by globalization, have enabled the pursuit of higher returns and portfolio diversification as well as market-oriented reforms in many countries which have liberalized access to financial markets. As a new participant in the globalization wave, India went through several structural and policy changes only in the early 1990s. India introduced a New Economic Policy guided by the IMF and the World Bank with the intention of economic stabilization. This paper reviews several literature on fundamental aspects and some former empirical evidence about globalization and capital flows to emerging economies with special reference to India. It also highlights the adverse impact of hot money along with debt flow in India.
Keywords: Globalization, emerging economies, economic integration, capital flows.

The Wealth Effects of Share Repurchases in Malaysia
Rohaida Abdul Latif, Kamarun Nisham Taufil Mohd, Wan Nordin Wan Hussin& Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study aims to assess whether buyback activities in Malaysia are able to provide any economic benefits to shareholders both in the short-term and in the long-run. Specifically this study investigates the price effects on: (a) the announcement surrounding the repurchase intentions and implementation dates, (b) factors affecting the price effects on implementation dates and (c) long-run price effects subsequent to repurchase implementation. Using event study methodologies, this study finds no significant immediate price reactions surrounding repurchase intention dates. However, there is significant evidence of positive abnormal returns in days –5 to +5 surrounding the announcement of repurchase implementation. As for the factors affecting abnormal returns, this study finds that abnormal return responds positively to better prior price performance, dividend yield, directors’ holdings, and fraction of shares repurchased. However, abnormal return responds negatively to the previous amount of cash held, reported earnings per share, and market-to-book value. Using a three year period as a measure of long-run, this study finds that there is no evidence that repurchasing firms experience superior or inferior price performance. This is one of the first studies in Malaysia to examine the long- run wealth effects of share repurchase.
Keywords: Share buybacks, shareholders’ wealth, corporate finance, long-run performance, emerging, Malaysia.

Roles of Job Satisfaction in Ensuring Quality of Working Life
Rozaini Rosli & Norailis Ab. Wahab
Faculty of Economics and Muamalat
Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
At present many companies around the world are struggling to meet the challenges presented by the organization’s global trends. The workforce has been continuously reminded of the competitiveness and increasing productivity in ensuring better working life. Not forgetting to balance the routines, job satisfaction needs also to be deliberated in any organization. In the current business scenario, the workforce in Malaysia has often been called to acquire core competencies and maintain their competitiveness in a liberalized and globalized market. Further, with the implementation of various policies pertinent to employment including the retirement age and minimum wages, the workplace is no more a pleasant place. Workers need to be more innovative, creative and talented to sustain employment. For such reasons, this paper attempts to examine the relationship between organizational support and job satisfaction in the insurance industry. The results showed that satisfaction with the job (M = 3.68); successful people, directed or influenced by its own commitment to achieve organizational goals (M = 3.55); know and understand the policies and processes to do their job better (M = 3.54). This result is important in that it clearly shows that the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational support are intertwined and closely related to organization performance. This paper proposed a practical model that helps management or decision-makers to highlight the most influential factors that influence the quality of employees’ working life in their organizations.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, quality of working life, insurance industry.

Pengurusan Muzakarah Jawatankuasa Fatwa Majlis Kebangsaan dan Jawatankuasa Fatwa Negeri: Satu Analisis Persamaan dan Perbezaan Fatwa Tahun 2000–2009
Zulfaqar Mamat & Mohd Nasran Mohamad
Fakulti Pengajian Islam
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Hydzulkifli Hashim Omar
Pusat Pengajian Perniagaan Islam
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Secara umumnya, terdapat dua institusi fatwa yang berpengaruh dan memainkan peranan dalam mengeluarkan fatwa di Malaysia iaitu Muzakarah Jawatankuasa Fatwa Majlis Kebangsaan Bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia (MJFK) dan Jawatankuasa-Jawatankuasa Fatwa Negeri yang ditubuhkan pada peringkat Negeri-Negeri di Malaysia. Matlamat kajian ini ialah untuk mengenal pasti faktor-faktor persamaan dan juga perbezaan yang wujud dalam fatwa-fatwa yang dikeluarkan oleh kedua-dua institusi ini dari tahun 2000 hingga 2009 dari aspek penyelarasan fatwa. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kualitatif dalam usaha menganalisis beberapa keputusan fatwa yang dikeluarkan oleh kedua-dua institusi fatwa untuk menyingkap persamaan dan perbezaan antara kedua-dua badan tersebut.
Kata kunci: Institusi fatwa, Muzakarah Jawatankuasa Fatwa Majlis Kebangsaan bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia (MJFK), jawatankuasa fatwa negeri-negeri, penyelarasan fatwa.

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