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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 18, No.1 June 2011

The Determinants of Internet Financial Disclosure: The Perspective of Malaysian Listed Companiesal
Ali Saleh Alarussi & Mohamad Hisyam Selamat
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mustafa Mohd Hanefah
Faculty of Economics & Muamalat
Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper investigates whether Internet Financial Disclosure (IFD) can be explained by the elements of the company’s characteristics and dominant personalities in board committees. Ten variables have been tested using data collected from 194 Malaysian listed companies’ websites, namely, internationality, leverage, foreign shareholders, information technology (IT) experts, firm’s age, number of shareholders, listing status, dominant personalities in the audit committee, chairman of audit and nomination committees, and dominant personalities in the audit and nomination committees. It is found that IT experts, firm’s age, number of shareholders and listing status are significantly affected by the level of IFD. However dominant personalities in the audit and nomination committees are negatively related to the level of IFD in Malaysia. The study provides some evidence to support the signaling theory and the cost and benefit hypothesis in relation to Internet disclosure.
Keywords: Determinants, Internet Financial Disclosure, listed companies.

Choosing a Newspaper for Advertising Using the Weighted Exposure Matrix Method — a Malaysia Case Study
P. D. D. Dominic
K. S. Savita
P. A. Emelia Akashah
Computer and Information Science Department
Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Advertising is one of the marketing strategies to promote products to consumers. Many advertising vehicles are available offering interesting advertising packages. The key objective of this study is to find which Malaysian newspaper is the better option to advertise your products or services in the newspaper so as to maximize your reach of the audience. Here the researchers selected two popular newspapers – The Star and Harian Metro – for this research and analyzed them based on the lowest cost for advertising per 1000 exposures using the weighted exposure matrix method. The result of this study shows that important factors such as cost, reach, frequency and target audience play important roles in selecting the best newspaper as the preferred advertisement vehicle.
Keywords: Advertisement; cost per thousand exposures; media, newspaper.

Revisiting Classic Needs Theory: Does Maslow Explain Mexico’s Maquiladora Workers’ Needs?
Melissa N. Gonzalez
School of Business and Public Administration
University of Houston-Clear Lake, USA
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Maslow’s hierarchical theory of needs has considerably influenced additional research streams that base needs as forces of human behavior. While the applicability of Maslow’s hierarchy has been scrutinized throughout the needs research, it still stands as the most researched and most cited needs theory in existence. The purpose of this recent attention to a needs theory is to “test” the applicability of Maslow’s Hierarchy to a sample of maquiladora workers and their needs. A qualitative field study was conducted to discover the applicability of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to the needs of maquiladora workers. Semi structured interviews with open-ended questions were used in gathering responses from lower-level maquiladora workers. Content analysis was used. According to the qualitative results, Maslow’s Hierarchy does not explain the needs of lower-level maquiladora workers. In addition, actual needs based on the interviews were uncovered and discussed.
Keyword: Maquiladoras, Maslow's hierarchy, needs theory, Mexican workers.

The Influence of Organizational Culture as Moderator between Person-Organization (P-O) Fit and Work Attitudes
S. Senthil Kumar
IBS, Hyderabad, India
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Although the positive effect of Person-Organization fit (P-O fit) on work attitudes is well known, research into the environmental factors that affect P-O fit’s salience in predicting work attitudes is in its infancy. This study examined the moderating effects of organizational culture in the relationship between P-O fit and work attitudes such as job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in the national culture context. Results from a sample of 173 managerial-level employees from 7 organizations in India suggest that organizational culture either strengthens or weakens the positive relationship between P-O fit and work attitudes depending upon its alignment with national culture. In the Indian cultural context, it is found that people and control-oriented organizational cultures that are isomorphic with national culture weaken the relationship between P-O fi t and work attitudes. Whereas creation and market-oriented cultures that are non-isomorphic with Indian national culture strengthen the positive relationship between P-O fi t and work attitudes. Results of this study have implications in employee selection, socialization and organizational culture management.
Keywords: Person-organization fit, organizational culture, national culture, job satisfaction, organizational commitment.

The Family as a Socioeconomic Management System
Masudul Alam Choudhury*
College of Commerce and Economics
Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat
Sultanate of Oman
*The School of Business
Cape Breton University, Canada
Abstract ƖFull Text
The family is a social miniscule in every culture. It is a central theme of gender-development issue. As such it has a distinct and abiding effect on the nature of the socioeconomic order in terms of preference formation relating to the kinds of artifacts that get exchanged and thus play a key role in socioeconomic development. The totality of these issues comprises the study of the family as a socioeconomic management system. The intergenerational interaction and co-evolution of the family in concert with the social complex is differently explainable in neoclassical economic and Islamic contexts. Consequently, the triangular circular interrelationships between the individual, the household and the socioeconomic order leave different effects in the above two paradigms. These in turn have profound influence on the future of socioeconomic development according to these paradigms. This paper formalizes an interrelationship between the inter-generational family and the socioeconomic order using the concept of circular causation of unity of knowledge in Islam and the methodological individualism in neoclassical economic theory. The inter temporal context of the theme is included with family extensions and their socioeconomic effects over populations of grandfathers and grandchildren.
Keywords: Microeconomics of family, socioeconomic management system, inter-generational endogenous preferences, culture and political economy.

An Empirical Investigation on the Relationship between Risk of Bankruptcy and Stock Return
Rohani Md-Rus
UUM College of Business
University Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The main objective of the paper is to find out whether bankruptcy risk is a systematic risk. In particular, we investigate the contribution of size, bookto-market, excess market returns and bankruptcy probability in explaining returns. We allocate stocks into portfolios according to the probability of bankruptcy from the hazard model. Results show that bankruptcy risk is not a systematic risk. The results consistently show that excess market returns and size have strong power to explain returns in the UK for the period from 1988 to 1997. Book-to-market and bankruptcy risk only matt er in portfolios with higher probability of bankruptcy.
Keyword: Bankruptcy risk, bankruptcy probability, hazard model. JEL Classification: G12, G33

Job Characteristics: What Can We Learn From the East?
Mohd Awang Idris*, Maureen F. Dollard & Anthony H Winefield
School of Psychology,
University of South Australia
*Department of Anthropology & Sociology
Universiti Malaya, Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Since being introduced in 2000, the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2000) has been studied extensively in various Western countries. Although the JD-R proposition is not proscriptive about specific demands and resource variables, scholars have used common variables as demands (e.g. workloads, deadlines), and as resources (e.g. support). The question is whether the common variables in the JD-R model that had their origins in Western formulations are applicable in developing countries. In this paper, based on grounded theory, we conducted focus group interviews to investigate specific variables that may apply in Malaysian workplaces. Two focus group interviews (N=13) were conducted with two groups of respondents (managers and non-managers) who worked for private and public sector organizations. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis strategy. The study found that new variables (e.g. organizational politics, bureaucratic factors) emerged as new demands not generally explored in JD-R research, whereas similar demands were identified at a job-task level (e.g. deadlines). Regarding resources these were mainly identified as in other Western research (e.g. support). Job challenge and exploring new things were identified as pleasurable aspects of work. This finding suggests that using qualitative methods is crucial to exploring the psychosocial concept of stress at work to uncover cultural differences that are apparent between Malaysian and Western employees
Keywords: Job demands, job resources, qualitative studies, job stress, JD-R.

IT– Business Strategic Alignment in Influencing Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Jordan: Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Approach
Damnithan Al-Majali & Zulkhairi Md. Dahalin
UUM College of Arts & Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
In many review articles or studies, the researchers have encouraged further exploration on the causal links between Information Technology (IT) investments and a firm’s sustainable competitive advantage. The outcomes of empirical studies have been inconclusive, which is to a certain extent due to the omission of IT-business strategic alignment. Indeed, strategic alignment has emerged as one of the most important issues facing business and IT executives all over the world. This paper reports on the empirical investigation of the success factors, which consist of leadership, structure and process, service quality, and values and beliefs, which are representative of the culture gap between IT strategy and business strategy. A questionnaire survey among 200 IT managers was carried out and 172 data sets were collected. This represented a 86% response rate. After a rigorous data screening process including outliers, normality, reliability and validity, 172 data sets were ready for structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to examine the composite reliability, convergent validity and goodness of fit of the individual constructs and measurement models. The revised structural model demonstrates the relationships between all the four exogenous variables and IT-business strategic alignment, and all the four exogenous variables and sustainable competitive advantage. In addition, regarding the revised model there are two mediating effects of strategic alignment in the relationship between leadership, structure and process, service quality, values and beliefs, and sustainable competitive advantage.
Keywords: Strategic alignment, alignment gap, information technology, sustainable competitive advantage.

Kemiskinan dan Agihan Pendapatan di Negeri Perak
Zakariah Abdul Rashid & Nooraini Kamarul Bahrain
Fakulti Ekonomi & Pengurusan
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Dengan menggunakan data HIS2000 dan pengiraan beberapa indeks kemiskinan dan agihan pendapatan (positif dan normatif), kertas kajian ini menganalisis isu kemiskinan dan jurang pendapatan mengikut kaum dan wilayah dalam negeri Perak. Kajian ini mendapati kemiskinan di negeri ini berdimensikan kaum dan wilayah apabila isi rumah Melayu adalah yang paling ramai miskin dengan jurang pendapatan di antara kaum ini dengan kaum-kaum lain jelas ketara. Selain itu, kemiskinan negeri ini juga bercirikan luar bandar dengan jurang pendapatan antara bandar dengan luar-bandar juga jelas ketara. Bagi memperbaiki ketidakseimbangan ini, kertas ini mencadangkan agar kaum yang terkebelakang ekonominya diberikan peluang yang lebih baik bergiat dalam sektor pembuatan dan perkhidmatan dan begitu juga, kawasan luar bandar perlu ditingkatkan prasarana ekonominya. Kedua-dua cadangan ini boleh diselaraskan dalam satu strategi pembangunan yang sedia ada dalam peringkat negeri dan persekutuan (NCER).
Kata kunci: Ukuran kemiskinan positif dan normatif, pencerakinan agihan pendapatan, nisbah jurang pendapatan dan ukuran kebajikan.

Atribut Sistem Penilaian Prestasi dengan Kepuasan Kerja dalam Kalangan Guru
Arsaythamby Veloo & Wirda Hasmin Zolkepli
College of Arts and Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti atribut Sistem Penilaian Prestasi dengan kepuasan kerja guru sekolah kebangsaan di negeri Perlis. Kajian ini meninjau hubungan antara pemboleh ubah atribut Sistem Penilaian Prestasi dengan kepuasan kerja guru. Sejumlah 107 orang guru telah dipilih sebagai responden kajian. Atribut Sistem Penilaian Prestasi (ASPP) terdiri daripada enam pemboleh ubah tidak bersandar iaitu keadilan sistem, kejelasan sistem, kawalan kriteria penilaian, penyertaan guru dalam sistem penilaian, pengendalian sistem penilaian dan kredibiliti penilai dengan pemboleh ubah bersandar iaitu kepuasan kerja guru. Instrumen kajian ini mengandungi sejumlah 26 item yang diadaptasi daripada instrument Kelly, Ang, Chong dan Hu (2008). Data yang dikumpul dianalisis dengan menggunakan SPSS versi 12.0 melalui ujian korelasi Pearson. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan hubungan positif yang signifi kan antara atribut Sistem Penilaian Prestasi iaitu keadilan sistem, kejelasan sistem, kawalan criteria penilaian, pengendalian sistem penilaian dan kredibiliti penilai dengan kepuasan kerja guru-guru kebangsaan di negeri Perlis. Namun, terdapat satu pemboleh ubah yang tidak mempunyai hubungan yang signifi kan dengan kepuasan kerja guru iaitu penyertaan guru-guru dalam sistem penilaian prestasi. Dapatan kajian ini memberikan input kepada pihak pentadbir sekolah kebangsaan tentang tingkah laku guru-guru terhadap penilaian prestasi dan bagaimana hubungan pelbagai atribut Sistem Penilaian Prestasi dengan kepuasan kerja. Setiap individu mengharapkan Sistem Penilaian Prestasi yang dilaksanakan adil dan telus. Melalui kajian ini, terbukti bahawa keadilan merupakan perkara yang perlu dititikberatkan dalam pengendalian Sistem Penilaian Prestasi.
Kata kunci: Keadilan sistem, kejelasan sistem, kawalan kriteria penilaian, penyertaan guru dalam sistem penilaian, pengendalian sistem penilaian, kredibiliti penilai, kepuasan kerja, atribut sistem penilaian prestasi.

Impak Perbelanjaan Pelancong Antarabangsa Kepada Ekonomi Malaysia
Norlida Hanim Mohd Salleh¹
Redzuan Othman¹ ²
Abdul Hamid Jaafar¹
¹ Fakulti Ekonomi dan Perniagaan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
² Institut Kajian Asia Barat (IKRAB)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Peningkatan perbelanjaan pelancong akan membawa kesan kepada meningkatnya permintaan akhir barangan dan perkhidmatan negara yang dilawati. Keadaan ini mempengaruhi atau memberi kesan kepada peningkatan tingkat keluaran dan pendapatan, serta kutipan cukai kerajaan daripada sektor tersebut. Sesetengah keperluan pelancong merupakan barang akhir atau barangan yang menggunakan asas input yang diimport. Ini bermakna perbelanjaan mereka juga merangsang peningkatan import. Kajian ini membincangkan secara konseptual dan disusuli secara praktikal bagi menganggarkan impak sebenar yang terhasil daripada perbelanjaan pelancong. Bagi tujuan tersebut kaedah Input-Output (I-O) akan digunakan. Untuk menggunakan kaedah ini, Jadual I-O yang dikeluarkan oleh Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia yang merujuk kepada I-O 2000 telah diagregatkan mengikut kesesuaian kajian. Hasil kajian mendapati beberapa subsector pelancongan seperti hotel dan restoran, borong dan runcit, pengangkutan serta sektor pembuatan yang bukan merupakan subsektor pelancongan adalah antara sektor utama penjana ekonomi keseluruhan. Nilai pengganda bagi keluaran, pendapatan dan kutipan cukai kerajaan yang dicatatkan berada pada kadar yang memberangsangkan (10–50 peratus). Sungguhpun perbelanjaan pelancongan secara keseluruhan menyebabkan import barang dan perkhidmatan dari luar negara meningkat, namum peningkatan import adalah sekitar 20 peratus sahaja. Hasil kerja ini dapat dijadikan panduan dalam membina polisi pelancongan serta membantu pelajar lebih memahami keterkaitan yang wujud dalam sebuah sistem ekonomi.
Kata Kunci: Pelancongan Malaysia, impak ekonomi, pengganda, analisis Input-Output.

Interaksi Antara Kepuasan Kerja Dengan Sikap Terhadap Wang Sebagai Peramal Kepada Keinginan Untuk Berhenti Kerja Secara Sukarela
Azman Ismail
Faculty of Defence and Management Studies
Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia
Cindy John
Faculty of Cognitive Science and Human Development
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Mohd Noor Mohd Shariff
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mohd Na’eim Bin Ajis & Noor Faizzah Bt Dollah
UUM College of Law, Government and International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Tujuan utama kajian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengukur kesan kepuasan kerja dan sikap terhadap wang ke atas keinginan untuk berhenti kerja secara sukarela. Kaedah soal selidik telah digunakan untuk mengumpul 140 borang soal selidik daripada pekerja yang berkhidmat di sebuah penguasa tempatan bertaraf  bandaraya di Sabah, Malaysia. Keputusan analisis regresi hierarki menunjukkan dua dapatan penting: pertama, interaksi di antara kepuasan kerja intrinsik dan sikap terhadap wang mempunyai hubungan yang signifi kan dengan keinginan pekerja untuk berhenti kerja. Kedua, interaksi diantara kepuasan kerja ekstrinsik dan sikap terhadap wang mempunyai hubungan yang signifi kan dengan keinginan pekerja untuk berhenti kerja secara sukarela. Keputusan ujian statistik ini menunjukkan bahawa sikap positif terhadap wang di kalangan pekerja yang mempunyai kepuasan kerja intrinsic berupaya menghalang hasrat mereka untuk berhenti kerja secara sukarela. Manakala, sikap positif terhadap wang di kalangan pekerja yang mempunyai kepuasan kerja ekstrinsik tidak berupaya menghalang hasrat mereka untuk berhenti kerja secara sukarela. Dapatan kajian mengesahkan bahawa sikap terhadap wang hanya bertindak sebagai pemboleh ubah penyederhana separa dalam model kepuasan kerja dalam organisasi kajian. Selanjutnya, perbincangan dan implikasi kajian turut dihuraikan.
Kata kunci: Kepuasan kerja, sikap terhadap wang, keinginan untuk berhenti kerja secara sukarela.

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