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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 17, No.1 June 2010

Foreign Investment, Government Expenditure, and Economic Growth in Malaysia
Fatimah Said, Zarinah Yusof, Saad Mohd Said & Ahmad Farid Osman
Faculty of Economics and Administration
Universiti Malaya
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
This study uses the ordinary least squares technique to examine the effect of foreign investment and government expenditure on the growth in GDP per capita in Malaysia over the period 1978-2005. The regression results showed that the growth of export and ratio of government expenditure to GDP are the driving forces in enhancing the economic growth in Malaysia. Foreign investment and previous year real income per capita growth depict positive impact, whereas population growth exerts a negative impact on economic growth.
Keywords: Foreign investment; government expenditure; economic growth.

Protection of Intellectual Property Rights an Indian Perspective
Balamurugan, R. & Radhakrishnan, R.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Anna University Coimbatore
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the Indian Innovation System, IPR system and other related activities such as Judicial System, Enforcement System, and Academic Institutions etc. The paper is based on the existing data and relates those data and results to the India’s Intellectual Property Rights System, Innovation, Research and Development. This paper focus on the recent reforms in IPR laws to achieve a legal framework for protecting IPR that is comparable to that of most developed nations. As a part Information Technology, three major IT organizations focus on innovation and research discussed in addition to an overview about major multinational companies’ research initiatives in India.
Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR); World Trade Organization (WTO); Information Technology (IT); General Agreement on Tariff s and Trade (GATT); Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS); International Searching Authority (ISA) and International Preliminary Examining Authority (IPEA).

Satisfying Customers Using Total Quality Management: The Mediating Role of Control Systems
Zulnaidi Yaacob & Ommei Kolsum S. Router
School of Distance Education
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The premise of this paper is that Total Quality Management (TQM) must be adopted as a way of life for employees and not just as a slogan per se, so that the intended goal of implementing TQM can be fully realised. In order to internalise the philosophy of TQM into each organisational member, control systems play an important role. Control systems, among others, are implemented as systems for aligning the intended objectives of TQM and the individual objectives of each employee. The findings of this study supported the contingency theory that suggested the control systems being practised should be aligned with the strategy pursued to achieve the intended objectives. This paper extends the current existing knowledge by investigating the mediating role of control systems in explaining the relationship between TQM and customer satisfaction.
Keywords: Total quality management; control system.

Dividend Announcements and Contagion Effects: An Investigation on the Firms Listed with Dhaka Stock Exchange
M. Abu Misir
Department of Finance
Jagannath University Dhaka
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Changes in dividend convey information about the earnings of the announcing firm which in turn affect the price. Security price depends on current earnings, past earnings, and future prospect of earnings. Dividend relevant theory postulates that dividend policy, dividend initiation and changes in dividend carry information about the market value of the announcing  firms. Accordingly, an unexpected increase in dividends conveys positive information about the future profitability of the firm and vice versa. Firm’s management is better informed than the market about the future prospects of their firm and therefore, their action relating to any financing decision conveys information to the investors. The principal purpose of this study was to examine the intra-industry information effects of announcements of dividend initiations of the firms associated with Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE). To test this hypothesis, we used Herfindahl Index and Tobin’s q ratio. The study found that the intra-industry effects of dividend revisions are apparent.
Keywords: Industry rivals; announcing  firms; dividend changes; rivals’ reactions; prediction error; cumulative average abnormal return; announcement date.

Adoption of Internet Banking: Theory of the Diffusion of Innovation
Khalil Md Nor
Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
J. Michael Pearson & Altaf Ahmad
College of Business
Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The innovation diffusion theory (IDT) could be considered as one of the earliest theories that attempts to explore factors that influence an individual to adopt an innovation or a new technology. The theory suggests five key beliefs that influence the adoption of any innovation: relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trialability, and observability. The purpose of this study was to test part of IDT’s attributes empirically. We used Internet banking as the innovation or the targeted technology. We surveyed 1164 business and MBA students in four public universities in Malaysia. Structural equation modelling  was used to analyse the data. The results showed that relative advantage, compatibility, and trialability have a significant effect on att itude. Consequently, attitude significantly aff ects the intention to use Internet banking. Based on the findings, implications to practice
are offered.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; innovation diffusion theory; Internet banking.

Psychometric Properties of Organisational Structure Scale in the Malaysian Public Service Agencies: Preliminary Results
Johanim Johari, Khulida Kirana Yahya & Abdullah Omar
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Organisational structure has been assessed with various different scales resulting in inconsistencies in the measures of this construct. Hence, a re-conceptualisation of the organisational structure construct is crucial due to the fact that researchers have thus far provided inconclusive agreement on what dimensions should be included in measuring organisational structure, although many studies have conceptualized organisational structure as a multidimensional construct. This study att empted to examine the psychometric properties of the organisational structure construct by integrating four subscales – decision making, hierarchy of authority, job codification, and rule observation. A priori proposition was made that organisational structure measurement could be explained by four of the hypothesised dimensions. SPSS version 12 and AMOS 4 were used to analyse the data. Findings supported the hypothesis that organisational structure can be measured by the four aforementioned subscales. Findings also showed acceptable internal consistency reliability for the overall and the four specific subscales of organisational structure latent construct.
Keywords: Organisational structure; psychometric properties; exploratory factor analysis; confi rmatory factor analysis; Malaysian Public Service.

Organisational Commitment in Malaysian Public Sector
Sharifah Noraida Syed Zainal Abidin, Mohd Shaladdin Muda, Fauziah Abu Hasan & Ahmad Munir Mohd Salleh @ Embat
Faculty of Management & Economics
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
This paper describes a research project that aims to determine the level of civil servants’ organisational commitment and the factors associated with it. The instruments used to measure organisational commitment, empowerment, job characteristics, and organisational communication were adapted from Allen and Meyer (1990), Spreitzer (1995), Hackman and Oldham (1975), and Downs and Hazen (1977). The findings demonstrated that civil servants appeared to have a higher level of affective commitment with mean value of 3.88 compared to continuance 3.58 and normative commitment 2.92. The study also found that civil servants were psychologically empowered in the department with mean value of 3.71, had experienced a variable opportunity in job with mean 3.51 and were reported to be satisfied with the existing communication in the department with mean value of 3.68. Research findings also showed that there is a correlation between organisational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative commitment) with empowerment, job characteristics, and organisational communication variables. The stepwise regression exhibited that empowerment variable is the most dominant predictor of civil servants’ organisational commitment. Meanwhile, organisational communication variable appeared to be the most significant factor to influence civil servants’ affective commitment. Civil servants with continuance commitment were found to be best predicted by empowerment variable. Finally, civil servants with normative commitment tend to be mostly influenced by job characteristics variable.
Keywords: Organisational commitment; empowerment; job characteristics; organisational communication.

An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Various Dimensions of Work-Life Balance on Organisational Commitment Among Service Sector Employees in India
Rincy V. Mathew & N. Panchanatham
Department of Business Administration
Annamalai University
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The present study examined the relationships of the various facets of work-family balance with organisational commitment (OC) and its various dimensions among employees working in the service sector in India. Data were collected from 408 employees by means of questionnaires. Correlation and linear regression analysis of the collected data demonstrated that while one of the dimensions of work-life balance namely, work interferes with personal life (WIPL), acted as a significant negative predictor of OC, another dimension that is work enhancement/ personal enhancement (WE/PE) showed significant positive impact on OC. The third dimension, personal life interferes with work (PLIW) even though showed a negative correlation; the impact was generally not significant. The article concludes with the managerial implications of the study in service sector industries/institutions.

Halaju Wang di Malaysia: Bukti Empirik
Zulkefly Abdul Karim, Mansor Jusoh & Norlin Khalid
Fakulti Ekonomi dan Perniagaan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemeruapan (volatility) halaju wang disamping menganggar fungsi halaju wang di Malaysia dengan menggunakan kaedah ekonometrik siri masa iaitu model ARCH dan GARCH, ujian kointegrasi Johansen dan ujian model vektor pembetulan ralat (VECM). Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa halaju wang M1 (V1) dan halaju wang M2 (V2) mempunyai kemeruapan yang berkelangsungan (persistence) berbanding dengan kemeruapan halaju wang M3 (V3). Keputusan ujian kointegrasi Johansen pula menunjukkan kewujudan hubungan jangka panjang antara halaju wang V1, V2 dan V3 dengan pemboleh ubah bebas yang terdiri daripada kadar bunga bon, kadar bunga deposit dan pendapatan negara. Selain itu, ujian VECM menunjukkan bahawa perubahan pemboleh ubah bebas iaitu kadar bunga bon, kadar bunga deposit dan pendapatan negara signifi kan menjadi penyebab kepada perubahan halaju wang V2 dan V3 dalam jangka panjang. Sebaliknya, dalam jangka pendek didapati perubahan pendapatan negara hanya signifi kan menjadi penyebab kepada perubahan halaju wang V2 dan V3 sahaja. Pengaruh kadar bunga hanya signifi kan menjadi penyebab jangka pendek kepada halaju wang V3 sahaja. Kajian ini memberikan beberapa implikasi penting kepada dasar kewangan negara.
Kata kunci: Halaju wang; kemeruapan; ekonometrik siri masa.

Hubungan Pembangunan Industri Pelancongan dan Pertumbuhan Ekonomi di Beberapa Negara Utama ASEAN
Redzuan Othman & Norlida Hanim Mohd Salleh
Fakulti Ekonomi dan Perniagaan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Makalah ini bertujuan mengkaji corak hubungan antara pembangunan ekonomi dengan pertumbuhan industri pelancong di beberapa negara utama ASEAN iaitu Malaysia, Thailand, Singapura dan Indonesia. Khususnya kajian cuba menguji hipotesis sama ada perkembangan industri pelancongan sebagai perangsang kepada pertumbuhan ekonomi (tourism-led economic growth - (TLG) atau pertumbuhan ekonomi sebagai perangsang kepada perkembangan industri pelancongan (economic growth-led tourism – GLT). Bagi tujuan tersebut, analisis ekonometrik yang menggunakan kaedah ujian kointegrasi dan penyebab Granger digunakan. Hasil kajian mendapati wujud hubungan satu hala antara perkembangan industry pelancongan dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Bagi negara Thailand dan Indonesia didapati pertumbuhan ekonomi sebagai penyebab kepada perkembangan industry pelancongan (GLT), sementara bagi Malaysia dan Singapura pula perkembangan industri pelancongan adalah penyebab kepada pertumbuhan ekonomi (TLG). Makalah ini mengaplikasikan teori dan realiti iaitu, penggunaan pendekatan penyebab Granger dalam menganalisis realiti industri pelancongan dan pertumbuhan ekonomi.
Kata kunci: Pertumbuhan ekonomi; pembangunan industri pelancongan; ujian kointegrasi; penyebab granger.

Analisis Kecekapan Relatif bagi Industri Saham Amanah Menggunakan Pendekatan Ekonometrik
Nor Azlida Aleng @ Mohamad Wan Muhamad Amir Wan Ahmad & Mustafa Mamat
Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Zaidi Isa
Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kecekapan relatif industri saham amanah di Malaysia menggunakan kaedah Analisis Sempadan Stokastik (ASS) bagi tahun 2003 dan 2004 yang terdiri daripada 65 buah dana daripada 16 buah syarikat pengurusan dana saham amanah di Malaysia. Dana yang dikaji dibahagikan kepada tiga jenis, iaitu pertumbuhan, pendapatan dan Islam/Syariah menggunakan spesifi kasi Batt ese dan Coelli (1992). Analisis data dan keputusan kajian menggunakan program Frontier Versi 4.1 (Coelli, 1996). Kecekapan merupakan pengukuran penting yang boleh digunakan untuk menilai perkembangan dan pertumbuhan ekonomi sesebuah
Kata kunci: Kecekapan; analisis sempadan stokastik (ASS); Spesifi kasi Batt ese dan Coelli (1992).

Kesan Amalan Komunikasi dalam Sistem Ganjaran dan Keadilan Prosedur Terhadap Prestasi Kerja
Azman Ismail, Dayang Nailul Munna Abang Abdullah & Noraida Wahid
Fakulti Sains Kognitif & Pembangunan Manusia
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Mohd Noor Mohd Shariff
UUM College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Kajian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengukur pengaruh persepsi keadilan prosedur dalam perhubungan antara amalan komunikasi dalam sistem ganjaran dan prestasi kerja di sebuah penguasa tempatan berstatus bandar raya di Sarawak, Malaysia. keputusan analisis regresi berganda hierarki menunjukkan bahawa interaksi antara pengetahuan tentang sistem ganjaran dan keadilan prosedur mempunyai hubungan yang tidak signifi kan dengan prestasi kerja, tetapi interaksi antara layanan ketua terdekat dan keadilan prosedur mempunyai hubungan yang signifi kan dengan prestasi kerja. dapatan kajian mengesahkan bahawa keadilan prosedur hanya bertindak sebagai pemboleh ubah penyederhanaan separa dalam model sistem ganjaran dalam organisasi kajian. justeru itu, implikasi dan limitasi kajian ini, serta cadangan kajian akan datang turut dibincangkan.
Kata kunci: Amalan komunikasi dalam sistem ganjaran; keadilan prosedur dan prestasi kerja.

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