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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 16, No. 2 December 2009

Ramalan Niat Gelagat Kepatuhan Zakat Pendapatan Gaji: Perbandingan Teori Tindakan Beralasan dan Teori Gelagat Terancang
Zainol Bidin & Kamil Md. Idris
UUMCollege of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Kepatuhan zakat merupakan suatu perkara yang penting dalam meningkatkan kutipan zakat. Faktor niat dianggap sebagai prasyarat terdekat dalam menentukan gelagat kepatuhan seseorang. Bagaimanapun, faktor niat tidak tercetus secara tersendiri kerana ada beberapa faktor lain pula yang berkait rapat dengan ketentuan niat. Justeru, kajian ini membandingkan dua model dalam meramal niat individu: teori tindakan beralasan (TTB) dan teori gelagat terancang (TGT). Sebanyak 250 responden dari organisasi awam dan swasta dianalisis dengan menggunakan pendekatan pemodelan persamaan berstruktur. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa sikap, norma subjektif, dan kawalan gelagat ditanggap memainkan peranan penting dalam mempengaruhi niat gelagat kepatuhan zakat gaji. Kedua-dua TTB dan TGT meramalkan niat gelagat kepatuhan zakat gaji dengan baik, namun TGT mempunyai kelebihan berbanding TTB apabila kebagusuaian padanan model TGT menunjukkan padanan yang lebih baik berbanding TGT. Di samping itu, keupayaan model TGT dalam meramal niat gelagat menunjukkan peningkatan dalam varian diterang, iaitu 48%. Implikasi terhadap pembuat dasar dan kajian lanjutan turut dibincangkan.
 
Kata kunci: Sikap; norma subjektif; kawalan gelagat ditanggap; niat; zakat; TTB; TGT.
 

 
Hubungan Dinamik Antara Inflasi, Kemeruapan Inflasi dan Pertumbuhan Output: Bukti Empirikal di Malaysia
Abu Hassan Shaari Mohd Nor
Fakulti Ekonomi dan Perniagaan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
 
Tan Yan Ling
Fakulti  Pengurusan Perniagaan
Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Tujuan utama makalah ini adalah untuk mengkaji hubungan dinamik antara inflasi, kemeruapan inflasi dan pertumbuhan output bagi tempoh Januari 1980 hingga Disember 2004. Kemeruapan inflasi dianggarkan dengan menggunakan model varians bersyarat ‘exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity’ (EGARCH) dan perubahan indek pengeluaran perindustrian (IPP) digunakan sebagai proksi kepada  pertumbuhan output. Teknik autoregresi vector (VAR) digunakan untuk menguji kewujudan hubungan lead-lagged antara ketiga-tiga pemboleh ubah yang dikaji. Keputusan empirikal menunjukkan wujud hubungan penyebab antara kadar inflasi dan kemeruapan inflasi. Secara amnya, kadar inflasi yang tinggi akan meningkatkan kemeruapan inflasi, selaras dengan hipotesis pertama Friedman. Seterusnya kemeruapan inflasi yang tinggi akan mengurangkan kadar inflasi seperti yang dibahaskan oleh Holland. Tambahan pula, inflasi memberi kesan negatif terhadap pertumbuhan output Malaysia. Walau bagaimanapun tiada hubungan yang wujud antara kemeruapan inflasi dan pertumbuhan output. Keputusan daripada analisis luar sampel menggunakan teknik fungsi tindak balas teritlak (GIRF) dan penghuraian varians (VDC) adalah konsisten dengan keputusan daripada analisis VAR.
 

 
Sumbangan Perubahan Teknologi Terhadap Pertumbuhan Output Industri Skel Kecil dan Sederhana di Malaysia
Rahmah Ismail
Fakulti Ekonomi dan Perniagaan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
 
Idris Jajri
Fakulti Ekonomi dan Pentadbiran
Universiti Malaya
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Industri Skel Kecil dan Sederhana (IKS) memainkan peranan yang amat penting terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi Malaysia. Bilangan pertumbuhannya yang banyak merangkumi hampir 90% daripada jumlah pertubuhan sektor pembuatan di Malaysia. Hal ini menjadikan industri ini mempunyai kemampuan yang tinggi dalam menyediakan peluang pekerjaan kepada rakyat. Namun sumbangannya dari segi output tidak setimpal dengan bilangan pertubuhannya dan jauh lebih rendah daripada sumbangan Industri Skel Besar (ISB) yang banyak didominasikan oleh pelabur asing. Jumlah output atau nilai ditambah IKS hanya merangkumi sekitar 30% daripada keseluruhan ouput pembuatan. Keadaan ini ada kaitannya dengan rendahnya kecekapan IKS dalam mengendalikan aktiviti pengeluarannya dan teknologi yang digunakan jauh terkebelakang daripada yang berlaku dalam ISB. Kedua-dua komponen ini menyumbang kepada rendahnya Pertumbuhan Produktiviti Faktor Keseluruhan (TFPG) IKS. Artikel ini akan menganalisis perubahan kecekapan teknikal, perubahan teknologi dan TFPG dalam IKS. Seterusnya artikel ini melihat sejauh mana perubahan teknologi mempengaruhi pertumbuhan output IKS. Bagi mencapai objektif ini data IKS daripada Penyiasatan Industri Pembuatan, Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia bagi tempoh 1985-2003 digunakan. IKS didefinisikan sebagai industri dengan bilangan pekerja sepenuh masa kurang daripada 200 orang. Data ini merangkumi 10 sub industri IKS pada tahap pengkelasan Industri Piawaian Malaysia (MSIC) 3 digit. Analisis kertas ini bermula dengan melihat perubahan kecekapan teknikal, perubahan teknologi dan TFPG yang berlaku dalam IKS dengan menggunakan kaedah Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Analisis seterusnya ialah menggunakan perubahan teknologi sebagai salah satu pemboleh ubah dalam model pertumbuhan output IKS bersama-sama dengan faktor modal dan buruh untuk melihat sejauh mana perubahan teknologi mempengaruhi pertumbuhan output. Analisis peringkat kedua ini menggunakan kaedah kuasa dua terkecil (OLS).
 

 
Kesejahteraan Subjektif Warga Tua di Malaysia: Kes Warga Tua Desa Kelantan
Wan Ibrahim Wan Ahmad
College of Arts and Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Ma’rof Redzuan, Zahid Emby & Abdul Halin Hamid
Fakulti Ekologi Manusia
 Universiti Putra Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Dalam kepustakaan gerontologi, modal manusia dan modal sosial secara meluas dianggap mempunyai pengaruh yang boleh meningkatkan tahap kesejahteraan warga tua. Oleh itu, objektif kajian ini ialah untuk mengukur sejauh mana tahap kesejahteraan subjektif warga tua desa dipengaruh modal manusia dan modal sosial yang mereka miliki. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, sejumlah 214 orang warga tua berumur 60 tahun dan lebih di kawasan desa negeri Kelantan telah dipilih sebagai sampel kajian. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan soal selidik yang telah disiapkan terlebih dahulu. Sebanyak 14 pemboleh ubah sosial dan demografi telah dianalisis menggunakan teknik analisi regresi untuk mengenal pasti pengaruh masing-masing ke atas kesejahteraan subjektif warga tua. Hasil kajian menunjukkan pendidikan, pengalaman kerja, perumahan dan hubungan sosial dengan pasangan serta kawan-kawan dan jiran tetangga merupakan pemboleh ubah yang mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan ke atas kesejahteraan subjektif warga tua di kawasan kajian. Selain itu, hasil kajian juga mengesahkan bahawa pendidikan, pengalaman kerja, perumahan serta hubungan sosial dengan pasangan dan kawan-kawan serta jiran tetangga adalah penting untuk kesejahteraan subjektif warga tua. Gerontologi; warga tua; kesejahteraan; kesejahteraan subjektif.
 

 

Influence Factor of Chinese Elders’ Wealth Management Behaviour: An Empirical Study                                            

Matthew Tingchi Liu
Faculty of Business and Administration
University of Macau
 
Zhu Zhenghao, Colin
Faculty of International Business
Zhejiang Business Technology Institute
 
Chen Chih-Chung
College of Journalism and Communication
 Jinan University
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the influential demographic variables of elders’ wealth management behaviour. Purpose sampling for 122 older consumers (aged over 65) who participate in wealth management programme with instrument, was conducted in April 2007 in China (Taiwan area). Regression was performed for the data analysis. The results showed gender, educational background, and living location being key factors affecting elder consumers’ wealth-management behaviours, including consumers’ familiarity with financial products/services, sources of professional information, sources of word-of-mouth information, investment intention, and investment confidence. The main contributions of this not only include enhancing existing literature concerning wealth management, marketing, and elder behaviours (especially for clarifying how the controversial factors work), but unveiling elders’ behaviour tendency in such a blooming emerging market. Practical implications to bank marketers are also given.
 
Keyword: Wealth management behaviour; Elders; China; Demographic variables.
 

 
The Effectiveness of Location Incentive: An Analytical Study of Manufacturing SMEs in The Kedah State
Soon Jan Jan, Asan Ali Golam Hassan & Lim Hock Eam
College of Arts and Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The main objective of this research is to find out the effectiveness of location incentive in attracting Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to a certain industrial location in the state of Kedah. The location choice identified in this research would be Sungai Petani and non-Sungai Petani industrial areas.  By using the logit model, we found that location incentive is not as effective as other factors in attracting SMEs in setting up their establishments in Kedah. The important factors that influence the location choice of manufacturing SMEs are (i) the years of operation of an SME, and (ii) the physical distribution of an SME product.
 

 
Key Factors for Hastening the Strategic Issue Diagnosis Process: A Within Organisational Model
Jodi A. Potter  & John Lipinski
Robert Morris University
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Previous research on Strategic Issue Diagnosis (SID) had focused on the complexity and novelty associated with the decision-making process in a turbulent environment. What had not been previously addressed in the extant literature is the requirement for speed inherent within the SID process, especially that is related to the gathering of information and facts through an organisation’s environmental scanning procedures. Since proactive management techniques, nimble processes, and systems that allow an organisation to be responsive and build rapid decision-making capabilities are important determinants of success in a turbulent environment, the element of speed associated with SID is an important factor. Our paper identifies a series of propositions focusing attention on elements of the environmental scanning processes and management hierarchies that are intended to counteract the recursiveness and redundancy inherent in SID systems and ultimately hasten the strategic decision-making process.
 
 
Keywords: Strategic issue diagnosis; environmental scanning and decision-making.
 

 
An Investigation on Trade Openness, Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth In Malaysia: Using an  ARDL Bounds Testing Approach
Hussin Abdullah, Muszafarshah Mohd Mustafa
College of Arts and Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Muzafar Shah Habibullah
   Faculty of Economics and Management
   Universiti Putra Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
This study examines the impacts of trade openness and fiscal policy on economic growth in Malaysia between 1970 and 2003 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and bounds test as proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001). Based on a structure consistent with the endogenous growth theory, the ARDL results show that, overall, trade openness and fiscal policy have strong positive impacts on economic growth in Malaysia over this period. This paper also develops a system instrumental variable method to estimate the structural speed of adjustment coefficient in an error correction model.
 
Keywords: Economic growth; Trade openness; Fiscal policy; Government expenditure; Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL).
JEL Classification: C23, F15, H30, H50, O47.
 

 
The Impact af a Price Change  on Consumer Choice of Automobiles
Muszafarshah Mohd Mustafa & Nor Azam Abdul Razak
College of Arts and Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper studies the impact of price change on the consumer choice of four selected automobiles in Malaysia: Saga 1.3cc, Saga 1.5cc, Wira 1.3cc, and Wira 1.5cc. The data were obtained from automobile reports compiled by the Malaysian Automotive Association (MAA), and analysed using the conditional and nested logit models. Our empirical analysis produced several key findings. Firstly, the sales of Saga 1.3cc appeared to be affected by  change in the price of Wira 1.3cc only, and vice versa. Secondly, the sales of Saga 1.5cc did not appear to be affected by change in the price of other models. Finally, the sales of Wira 1.5cc also did not appear to be affected by  change in the price of other models. Taken together, these results suggested that, except for Saga 1.3cc and Wira 1.3cc, there is little or no evidence that all of the car models under consideration are substitutes to each other in a pairwise comparison.
 
Keywords:  Vehicle-type choice; Saga; Wira; Conditional logit, Nested logit.
 

 
Factors Contributing to Financially Distressed Companies in Malaysia
Nur Adiana Hiau Abdullah, Rohani Md. Rus & Abd. Halim @ Hamilton Ahmad
College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
By using a total of 52 distressed and non-distressed listed companies during the period 1990 to 2000, debt to total assets was found to be significant in predicting distressed companies for the multiple discriminant analysis (MDA), logit and hazard models. It appears that the higher the debt, the higher is the probability of defaulting among the financially distressed companies. MDA identified net income growth as another predictor whereas the logit and hazard model found that return on asset (ROA) to be an important predictor. Nevertheless, the sign of the ROA coefficient differred between the two models. Furthermore, company size was also identified as a contributing factor to financially distressed companies for the hazard model. 
 
 
Keywords: Financial distress; MDA; Logit; Hazard model.
 

 
Return to Education in Malaysia
Rusmawati Said
Faculty Economics and Management
University Putra Malaysia
 
Asmaddy Haris
Faculty of  Economics and Muamalat
University Sains Islam Malaysia
 
Robert Mc.Nabb
Cardiff Business School United Kingdom
Cardiff University, United Kingdom
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The aim of this paper is to present a picture of return to education in Malaysia over the period from 1984 to 1997 based on earning equations model. The paper employed a set of data comprising micro-level data from the Household Income Survey (HIS) for several years during the period 1984 to 1997. The main finding of this paper is the changes in the wage differentials favouring the middle level of education (secondary level of education) workers.  In general, the results show that the return for each level of qualification declined between 1984 and 1997, especially at the higher levels (diploma and degree). Interestingly, the return to education for females at low levels of education is higher than the return by males. However, at higher levels of qualification, especially for those with secondary and high school qualifications, males traditionally have a higher return compared to females workers.  The results also indicated a significant gender differential, however the differences has fallen over time.
 
 
Keywords: Labor demand; Wage differentials; Trade and labour market interaction; Technological change.
JEL classification codes: J21,J23,J31,O33.
 

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