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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 15, No. 1 June 2008

The Relationship between Terms-of-Trade and Trade Balance in Asean-5
Wong Hock Tsen
School of Business and Economics
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
This study investigated the relationship between terms-of-trade and trade balance in the ASEAN-5, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, using time series data. Moreover, this study examined the Granger causality between terms-of-trade and trade balance. This study uses commodity terms-of-trade. The results showed that there is a long-run relationship between terms-of-trade and trade balance in the ASEAN-5, except for Indonesia and Singapore. Furthermore, the results showed that Granger causality between terms-of-trade and trade balance is mixed. The mixed results of the relationship between terms-of-trade and trade balance are consistent with the ongoing debate in the literature of terms-of-trade and trade balance.
Keywords: Terms-of-trade; trade balance; ASEAN-5; cointegration; Granger causality.

Tax Compliance Costs of Bumiputera Small and Medium Enterprises in Northern Malaysia
Hafizah Abdul Mansor
Faculty of Accountancy
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Johor
Mustafa Mohd Hanefah
Fakulti Ekonomi dan Muamalat
Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
This paper explores and measures the level of tax compliance costs among Bumiputera small and medium enterprises in the Northern Region of Malaysia for the year of assessment 2003. The findings revealed that the tax compliance costs have a significant relationship with the paid up capital (size of enterprises). Overall, the tax compliance cost of Bumiputera small and medium enterprises was RM880,110 for the assessment year 2003. Furthermore tax compliance cost of smaller Bumiputera enterprises amounted to RM413,670 while the larger Bumiputera enterprises was RM466,440. The average tax compliance cost is RM22,003. Most of the large Bumiputera enterprises incurred more external tax compliance costs than internal compliance costs (62.34%) compared to the smaller Bumiputera enterprises (37.66%). In contrast, the smaller Bumiputera enterprises incurred more internal tax compliance costs of about 83% as compared to external tax compliance costs (17%). The results also indicated that small Bumiputera enterprises have a higher percentage of tax compliance costs based on tax revenue, which is 2.57 times more compared to large Bumiputera enterprises, which amounted to only 0.46 times.
Keywords: Compliance cost; taxation; bumiputera and SME.

Evidence of Bank Lending Channel in Malaysia
Fathin Faizah Said
Monetary Economics
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abdul Ghafar Ismail
Banking and Financial Economics
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of banks in the transmission of monetary policy and business cycle. This paper attempts to look into the assets side as a monetary policy channel to influence economic activities. Changes in the monetary policy channel give an idea to regulate and strengthen the banking industry. The different views raise the following questions: how do changes in the monetary policy transmission affect commercial banks portfolio? If bank lending plays as a monetary policy channel, does it affect the other portfolios? Do the current regulations (such as capital requirement) affect the bank portfolio behaviour? Furthermore, Generalise Least Squares method was used to estimate the monetary changes toward commercial banks portfolio. Annual data was compiled from the year 1994 until 2004. The number of observations was based on the combination of time series and crosssectional data, which is known as pooled data. In addition, an unbalanced bank-level panel data set for commercial banks was used. Finally, our results found that there exists a bank-lending channel in the case of Malaysia. JEL Classification numbers: E51; E52; E58.
Keywords: Transmission mechanism; monetary policy; lending channel; pooled data.

The Relationship between Transaction Costs Of External Financing And Dividend Policy: Evidence From Malaysia
Yusnidah Ibrahim & Ahmad Rizal Mazlan
College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
The presence of transaction costs calls for the emphasis to be given to residual dividend policy, a policy that attempts to minimise transaction costs of external financing by accommodating capital expenditure financing requirement in companies’ dividend policy. In Malaysia, dividend increases are often perceived positively, regardless of the company’s requirement for funding future capital expenditure, and hence the extent of the influence of transaction costs on dividend policy is questionable. This study, therefore, was undertaken to examine this issue by investigating the relationship between dividend payout ratio and various proxies for transaction costs. The study found that standard deviation of return is negatively and statistically significant in influencing DPR, which indicates that consideration has been given to transaction costs since riskier companies tend to face higher transaction costs. The insignificance of other variables, however, implies that either these variables have little influence on transaction costs or that less emphasis is given by Malaysian companies in general to transaction costs relative to other factors in dividend decision-making.

The Relationship between Career Strategies and Career Success
Tan Fee Yean & Khulida Kirana Yahya
College of Business
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
This study examines the relationship between career strategies and career success. The three dimensions that measured career strategies were enhancing promotability, strengthening external contacts, and improving image with superiors. Meanwhile, the dimension that measured career success was subjective career success. Data were gathered through the distribution of questionnaires to employees at a manufacturing organization (n=185). Correlation and regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between career strategies and career success. The results indicated that there were no relationships between overall career strategies and career success. However, in terms of career strategies dimensions, only two were positively correlated with career success, namely, strengthening external pengaruh contacts and improving image with superiors. The multi-regression results suggest that improving image with superiors was the most important factor in influencing individual’s career success. The findings were discussed and recommendations for future research were also put forward.
Keywords: Career success; career strategies.

The Role of Cultural Value Dimensions In Relational Demography
Bryan S. Schaffer, PHD
Management & Accountancy Department
University of North Carolina – Asheville
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
This paper examines how cultural value dimensions affect processes related to social identity theory and relational demography. Gender differentiation, individualism/collectivism, and power distance are each positioned as important variables that have the potential to impact the level of salience for particular social identity characteristics. The value dimensions of uncertainty avoidance and long-term/short-term orientation are each positioned as contextual variables, moderating the relationships between demographic dissimilarity and outcomes related to bias and discrimination. The framework presented should have implications for future research in relational demography and assist managers in their attempt to understand individual differences in organisations.
Keywords: Relational demography; diversity; cultural values; social identity; discrimination.

Pengukuran Prestasi Pensyarah Berasaskan Metrik : Satu Kajian Kes
Mazlan Mohd Sappri
Kolej Sastera dan Sains
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Penilaian staf merupakan suatu proses yang kompleks dan dinamik berdasarkan peraturan organisasi dan boleh berubah dari semasa ke semasa. Pemantauan yang efektif penting untuk kejayaan pembangunan kakitangan di dalam sesebuah organisasi. Penstafan metrik memberikan penyelesaian ke arah pemantauan yang berkualiti melalui maklum balas berkenaan prestasi kakitangan bagi sesebuah organisasi. Kajian penilaian kakitangan telah dijalankan di Fakulti Sains Kuantitatif, Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), bertujuan untuk memantau prestasi kakitangan di fakulti berasaskan metrik yang akan dijadikan asas panduan dalam pemantauan lima isu utama: pembangunan kendiri; pembuatan keputusan; kebolehkomunikasi; pengajaran dan penyelidikan. Melalui soal selidik, temu bual dan analisis  dalam kalangan pensyarah diamalkan semasa proses pemantauan. Bagi tujuan ini, Program Penilaian dan Pemantauan Staf (StEMP) yang telah dibangunkan diubahsuai untuk memproses nilai metrik dan memaparkan maklumat seperti peratusan kerja yang dilakukan oleh pensyarah mengikut kategori. Seterusnya output ini akan digunakan untuk menyokong aktiviti pembuatan keputusan oleh pihak fakulti. Sebagai kesimpulannya, kajian ini menerangkan bagaimana penggunaan metrik dapat membantu dalam proses pemantauan untuk mengukur prestasi pensyarah secara berkala.
Kata kunci: Metrik; pemantauan; prestasi staf; kualiti; penilaian.

Analisis Faktor Peringkat Kedua Terhadap Prinsip-Prinsip Pengurusan Kualiti
Lim Kong Teong & Tang Swee Mei
Kolej Perniagaan
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Kajian empirikal ini menggunakan analisis faktor peringkat kedua, untuk menguji sama ada set prinsip-prinsip pengurusan kualiti yang disintesiskan daripada falsafah guru kualiti serta kerangka anugerah kualiti dan system pengurusan kualiti, secara bersama dapat membentuk satu faktor peringkat lebih tinggi yang boleh dinamakan “TQM”. Atur cara komputer LISREL 8 (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993) telah digunakan untuk menganggar dan menilai kebagusuaian model faktor peringkat kedua yang dikemukakan dengan menggunakan data tinjauan yang diperoleh daripada jabatan pendidikan yang dipilih secara rawak daripada sepuluh buah universiti awam tempatan di Malaysia. Keputusan analisis menunjukkan kesesuaian yang boleh diterima antara model kajian dengan data, dan menyokong kewujudan perhubungan peringkat kedua di antara prinsip-prinsip pengurusan kualiti.
Kata kunci: TQM; prinsip-prinsip pengurusan kualiti; pendidikan.

Keusahawanan Peladang Di Lembaga Kemajuan Pertanian Muda (Mada): Kajian Dari Sudut Pendekatan Sikap
Mohd Noor Mohd Shariff & Samsuri Samsudin
Kolej Perniagaan
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Penentuan keusahawanan dari sudut pendekatan orientasi sikap telah dijalankan secara meluas di negara maju. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan orientasi sikap dalam menentukan keusahawanan di kalangan peladang di Lembaga Kemajuan Pertanian Muda (MADA). Sampel kajian adalah terdiri daripada 74 peladang yang mendapat bimbingan keusahawanan dan 126 peladang yang tidak mendapat bimbingan keusahawan daripada pihak MADA. Alat skala Orientasi Sikap Keusahawanan (EAO) telah digunakan terhadap kedua-dua kumpulan responden bagi menentukan kesahan diskriminan (discriminant validity). Hasil kajian mendapati terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan di antara kedua-dua kumpulan tersebut bagi empat sub-skala EAO (kawalan personal, penghargaan diri, inovasi, pencapaian); di mana semua sub-skala di masukkan dalam fungsi stepwise discriminant kecuali inovasi. Beberapa cadangan dikemukakan untuk pihak MADA meningkatkan lagi sikap keusahawanan di kalangan peladang.
Kata kunci: Peladang; Keusahawanan; Sikap Keusahawanan; MADA.

Hubungan Persekitaran Stesen Kerja Dan Aduan Berkenaan Tubuh Badan (Somatic Complaints): Implikasi Terhadap Pengurusan Sumber Manusia
Zafir Mohamed Makhbul
Fakulti Ekonomi dan Perniagaan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Fazilah Mohamad Hasun
Fakulti Pengurusan dan Muamalah
Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor
Abstract Ɩ  Full Text
Kajian menunjukkan sistem akustik yang buruk, sistem pengudaraan yang tidak selesa dan tahap pencahayaan yang lemah boleh menyumbang kepada masalah kesihatan pekerjaan terutamanya aduan berkenaan tubuh badan. Kekerapan aduan berkenaan tubuh badan merupakan antara petunjuk bahawa pekerja mungkin mengalami masalah kesihatan yang lebih serius dalam jangka masa panjang. Aduan ini termasuklah kesakitan di bahagian sebelah atas badan, belakang badan, pinggang, kaki dan seumpamanya. Kajian perlu dijalankan untuk mengetahui sumbangan faktor persekitaran stesen kerja seperti akustik, pencahayaan dan pengudaraan terhadap aduan berkenaan tubuh badan. Kajian dijalankan melalui soal selidik yang melibatkan seramai 100 responden terdiri daripada operator pengeluaran yang bekerja di sebuah organisasi perkilangan elektronik multinasional. Hasil analisis regresi berbilang menunjukkan 24.1% perubahan dalam aduan berkenaan tubuh badan disebabkan oleh sistem akustik, pencahayaan dan pengudaraan. Pengujian hipotesis pula menunjukkan faktor pencahayaan dan pengudaraan mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan dengan aduan berkenaan tubuh badan. Melalui analisis korelasi pula, faktor sistem pengudaraan mempunyai kekuatan hubungan yang lebih tinggi (42.1%) dengan aduan berkenaan tubuh badan berbanding dengan faktor-faktor yang lain.

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