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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 11, No. 1 June 2004

Cross-Cultural Research in Malaysia
Wan Rafaei Abdul Rahman
Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
The objective of the paper is to look at the cross-cultural psychology approach in Malaysia. The paper looks at the problems involved  and show how the problem cab be minimized. A number of example of cross-cultural research was given-achievement motivation, Pinget’s cognitive development, socialization and use of test such as Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Rothwell-Miller Interest Blank, the repertory grid and its variations. Practical example of the emic-etic distinction in the form of the “open house” and other traditions are given to show the process of finding equivalence in the Malaysian context. Indigenization of the psychology in the Malay context is underway.

Simulation Model of Resources Allocation of Container Terminals
Jessica Tan Ming Kuan
Razman Mat Tahar,
Faculty of Quantitative Science
University Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ Full Text
A large amount of capital is invested in developing container terminals in order to cope with the growth of trade and, at the same time, to increase the level of efficiency. Managing a container terminal becomes a difficult and challenging task due to its complexity. Simulation model has the potential of being extremely useful in assessing and analyzing different strategies in the planning and management of the terminal. The simulation model is also useful for forecasting the likely effects on system performance of any physical and policy changes. In this study an efficient simulation model for container terminal planning is developed. The model assists in making informed decisions 0n the logistic management of terminal operations and the optimal utilization of resources.

Non-Parametric Cointegration Analysis of  ASEAN-5 Real Exchange Rates
Kian-Ping Lim & Hock-Ann Lee
Labuan School of International Business and Finance
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
This study employs the Bierens's (1997) non-parametric cointegration methodology to test the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) hypothesis forfiz~e major ASEAN economies - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, with the U.S. and Japan data as base countries. The results provide evidence of mean reversion in dollar denominated real exchange rate for three ASEAN countries - Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. These findings are in sharp contrast with those earlier studies using Johansen cointegration technique. Consistent with the interpretation of Coakley and Fuertes (2001), the discrepancy between the findings from both approaches is interpreted as a consequence of significant non-linearity in the real exchange rate adjustment to PPP. Further analysis reveals that the evidence of PPP is much stronger with the Japanese yen as the numeraire currency, thus supporting the notion that the choice of numeraire currency can and does matter for testing PPP hypothesis. These results provide strong evidence of the integration between the Japanese economy and those of ASEAN countries, which are closely linked in geographical, economic and trade terms. The increasing role of Japanese yen in the ASEAN region can be taken as providing empirical support for the formation of a yen dominated ASEAN exchange rate system, or a 'yen bloc'.
Keywords: Non-parametric cointegration, Purchasing power parity, ASEAN economies, Non-linearity, EasyReg.

Efficiency of Local Governments in Malaysia and Its Correlates
Fatimah Wati Ibrahim & Mohd. Zaini Abd. Karim
Faculty of Economics
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
The local government as one of the levels of government, plays a crucial role in providing public goods and services that are specific to the localities. However, the performance of local governments has been subjected to various criticisms, based on the increasing number of complaints from the public regarding provision of public goods and the poor services rendered to the locals, suggesting the inefficiency of our local governments. This article investigates this issue by analysing whether local governments in Malaysia use an efficient level of resources to provide their services. To achieve the objective, we estimate cost efficiency using the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)approach. The efficiency scores were then regressed against factors that are likely to influence the local government's performance. The results indicate that the local governments in Malaysia are not fully efficient in using their inputs. The results also indicate that the variables that influence the local government's efficiency the most are level of technology usage, average income of the population, type of local government and location of the local government.

The Uncertainty of the U.S. and Japanese Interest Rates and Its Effect on Money Demand in Malaysia
Jauhari Dahalan
Faculty of Economics
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
This paper examines the effect of the volatility of the U.S. and Japanese interest rates on the money demand in Malaysia. The volatility of the U.S. and Japanese interest rates measured as a conditional variance are estimated from the GARCH(1,I) model. The long-term relationship between real money demand in Malaysia and the volatility of the U.S., and between real money demand in Malaysia and Japanese interest rates are investigated by applying the Johansen multivariate cointegration test. Results show that the volatility of the U. S. and Japanese interest rates impose a significant influence in money demand in Malaysia. However, the opportunity cost of holding money remains to impose a larger effect on the money demand function.
Keywords: money demand, GARCH, conditional variance, volatility, user cost, unit root, VAR, cointegration.

Developing Parallel 3-Point Implicit block Method For Solving Second order Ordinary Differential equations Directly
Zurni Omar
Faculty of Quantitative Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ Full Text
Ordinary differential equations are commonly used for mathematical modeling in many diverse fields such as engineering, industrial mathematics, operation research, artificial intelligence, management, sociology and behavioural sciences. Numerous problems encountered in these fields require lengthy computation and immediate solution. In this paper, a new method called parallel 3-point implicit block method for solving second order ODES is developed. This method takes full advantage of parallel computers because the numerical solution can be computed at three points simultaneously. As a result, the solution can be obtained faster if compared to the conventional methods where the numerical solution is computed at one point at a time. Computational advantages are presented comparing the results obtained by the new method with that of 1-point and 2-point implicit block methods. The numerical results show that parallel 3-point implicit block method reduces the total number of steps and execution time without sacrificing the accuracy.

The Making of Jonker Walk: Night Market, Pedestrian Mall or culture Street?
Ong Puay Liu
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Ong Puay Tee
Faculty of Business and Law
Multimedia University
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
Jonker Walk, located in the heart of Melaka town, is one of the latest innovations of present-day Melaka state government. Conceptually, Jonker Walk, launched by the state government on June 19,,2000, combines the historical, economic and touristic characteristics of the state. Economically, Jonker Walk provides the avenue for its participants to select aspects of their ethnicity and cultural practices and transform them into economically productive activities. Touristically, this gathering of multi-cultural and multi-ethnic people of Melaka, each "selling" something from their culture along the same half-mile street, provides a prospective setting for promoting Melaka as a cultural destination. With these three conceptual dimensions, Jonker Walk exists on paper as a touristic culture street. But what is Jonker Walk in reality? Is it a culture street, night market, or a pedestrian mall? This question forms the underlying theme of this paper. It presents the concept and implementation of Jonker Walkfrom the perspective of its significant stakeholders, which are, the state goverment, Jonker Walk Organising Committee, Jonker Walk traders and tourists/visitors. The paper highlights several distinctive mismatches in making Jonker Walk a touristic culture street.
Keywords: culture tourism, management, product development, Jonker Walk

Motivation, Problems and Husband's Social Support for Rural Woman Business Owners from the Mada scheme
Habshah Bakar
Faculty of Business Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
The purpose of the research was to determine the motives of rural women being in business, the problems they faced, their performance and the effect of husbands' social support on their business performance. The data from 82 married rural women business owners from the MADA scheme were analysed to determine the above purpose. It was found that the women in the sample entered the business world out of necessity to contribute to the family income apart from their self interest to be in business. The women received help from their husband in ten business-related tasks as well as two home-related tasks. It was found that the help from their husband in the form of consultation, management (physical work at the premise and recording the business transaction), and marketing (distributing product and seeking new market) gave to the difference in the sales made by the business. Recommendation was also given in the article to enhance the womens' businesses.

Respons Penawaran Pengeluar Minyak Sawit Malaysia: Model Harga Jangkaan
Fuad Mohamed Berawi
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti bagaimana pengeluar minyak sawit Malaysia membentuk harga jangkaan barangan sendiri ketika membuat keputusan untuk rnenawarkan minyak sawit di pasaran. Lima harga jangkaan sendiri dibentuk berasaskan proses yang dicadangkan oleh teori cobweb, hipotesis jangkaan ekstrapolatif, jangkaan berpemberat mudah, jangkaan penyesuaian, dun hipotesis jangkaan rasional. Harga jangkaan tersebut seterusnya disarangkan ke dalam model penawaran diingini dengan pertimbangan kerangka hipotesis pelarasan separa untuk diuji dalam fungsi penawaran minyak sawit bagi mempotretkan hubungan jangka panjang. Penemuan kajian menunjukkan hipotesis jangkaan rasional adalah yang terbaik menerangkan proses jangkaan untuk mencapai penawaran diingini, dengan darjah keanjalan dalam jangka pendek adalah rendah berbanding jangka panjang bagi semua pemboleh ubah penerang. Keanjalan harga jangkaan sendiri didapati lebih anjal berbanding pemboleh ubah lain dalam mempengaruhi penawaran. Penemuan juga menunjukkan perbezaanpenawaran diingini dengan penawaran sebenar dicapai hanya 4.5%.
Kata kunci: Penawaran diingini, hipotesis pelarasan separa, harga jangkaan, cobweb theorem, ekstrapolatif, berpemberat mudah, rasional, penyesuaian.

Nilai Ekonomi Khidmat Rekreasi Taman Pertanian Malaysia, Shah Alam
Jamal Othman, Basri Abdul Talib & Redzuan Othman
Fakulti Ekonomi dun Pengurusan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
Pembangunan pesat prasarana berdekatan dengan lokasi Taman Pertanian Malaysia (TPM) di Shah Alum Selangor telah menimbulkan persoalan ekonomi normatif sama ada TPM wajar terus beroperasi bagi menjayakan matlamat asal atau ditukar kepada kegunaan alternatifsejajar dengan arus pembangunan kawasan sekeliling. Kajian ini cuba menganggar nilai ekonomi faedah rekreasi di kalangan pelancong-pelancong domestik ke TPM dengan menggunakan Kaedah Kos Perjalanan. Kajian mendapati nilai faedah bersih sebanyak RM4.33 bagi setiap lawatan per pelawat. Berdasarkan kadar diskaun sosial 10%, nilai kini faedah kasar agregat dianggar sebanyak RM8.4 juta (RM6700 per hektar) manakala nilai kini faedah bersih sebanyak RM5.5 juta (RM4345 sehektar). Dapatan nilai faedah bersih bagi setiap pelawat mencadangkan perkhidmatan rekreasi TPM yang sedia ada tidak menawarkan faedah yang tinggi kepada pengunjung. Namun, TPM berpotensi menjadi destinasi pelancongan eko-tani yang berdaya maju dalam negara dun di rantau ASEAN sekiranya dilakukan usaha-usaha pembaikan yang inovatif dun radikal, termasuk meningkatkan kecekapan pengurusun TPM.
Kata kunci: Taman Pertanian Malaysia; Pelancongan tani; Isu Normatif;. Kaedah Kos Perjalanan; Faedah Rekreasi.

Kemeruapan Pulangan Pasaran Indeks Syariah Kuala Lumpur (KLSI): Analisis Model Garch
Abu Sufian Abu Bakar, Hussin Abdullah & Mohd. Saharudin Shakrani
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Hasniza Mohd. Taib
Fakulti Kewangan dun Perbankan
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
Kemeruapan pulangan saham ditakrifkan sebagai serakan terhadap purata pulangan saham atau lebih dikenali sebagai varians. Maklumat dun pengetahuan mengenai gelagat kemeruapan pulangan saham begitu penting kepada ahli ekonomi dun para penganalisis kewangan dalam menyelesaikan beberapa masalah ekonomi yang berkaitan. Poterba dun Summers (1986) telah mengaitkan pengaruh keberterusan pulangan terhadap hubungan antara perubahan kemeruapan dengan harga saham manakala Bollerslev Chou and Kroner, (1 992) pula menyatakan bahawa terdapat tiga sifat yang mempengaruhi kemeruapan pulangan saham iaitu sifat keberterusan pulangan, sifat min-varians, dun sifat hubungan tidak simetri. Sehubungan dengan itu, kajian ini menggunakan model-model keluarga ARCH untuk menganalisis gelagat kemeruapan pulangan saham lulus syariah di Bursa Saham Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia di atas kepentingannya dalam menganalisis dun meramalkan kemeruapan. Penganggar empirikal ini menggunakan data mengenai harga saham lulus syariah untuk setiap hunter, volum dagangan, lndeks Industri Dow Jones, lndeks Syariah, Indeks Komposit, Kadar Faedah Antara Bank dun Kadar Faedah Antara Bank Islam. Tempoh keseluruhan yang diambil sebagai kajian ialah dari 2 Januari 1995 hingga 13 Jun 2003. Tempoh ini kemudiannya dibahagikan pula kepada dua tempoh iaitu tempoh satu sebelum dilancarkan Indeks Syariah pada 2 Januari 1995 hingga 29 April 1999. Manakala tempoh dua merupakan tempoh selepas pelancaran Indeks Syariah iaitu 30 April 2003 hingga 13 Jun 2003.
Kata Kunci: Kemeruapan, ARCH, GARCH, Pasaran Saham, Pulangan.

Kekangan Pinjaman dan Kesannya ke atas Pengumpulan Modal Manusia: Satu Analisis Empirik
Zulkifly Osman & Ishak Yusoff
Fakulti Ekonomi & Pengurusan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Pui Wee Hua
UKM Pakarunding Sdn. Bhd.
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
Hasil kajian lepas menunjukkan bahawa kekangan pinjaman meningkatkan tabungan agregat dan oleh itu, boleh meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Namun begitu, kajian ini mendapati halangan meminjam boleh mengurangkan proses pengumpulan modal manusia dan dengan ini boleh mengekang pertumbuhan ekonomi. Dengan menggunakan data Malaysia,hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa apabila kekangan pinjaman meningkat, individu akan kurang melabur dalam pendidikan dun seterusnya modal manusia merosot.

Tingkah Laku Etika Ketua dan Subordinat di Bank-Bank di Utara Malaysia
Abdullah Hj. Abdul Ghani
Fakulti Pengurusan Perniagaan
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti tahap, perbezaan dun perkaitan tingkah laku etika ketua dengan tingkah laku etika subordinat serta pengaruh tingkah laku etika ketua terhadap tingkah laku etika subordinat di sektor perbankan. Pendekatan kajian menggunakan kaedah survey di lapangan. Kajian ini terhad kepada semua bank di Kedah dun Perlis. Data daripada 77pasangan responden(ketua dun subordinat semerta) yang mengembalikan soul selidik telah dianalisis. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan kebanyakan ketua (64.9%) berada pada tahap pascakonvensional, sementara kebanyakan subordinat (46.8%) pula pada tahap konvensional. Lanjutan daripada itu, kajian mendapati tingkah laku etika ketua dun tingkah laku etika subordinat adalah berbeza secara signifkan. Skor "Defining Issue Test" (DIT) masing-masing ialah 67.39 dun 57.14. Kita juga mendapati korelasi di antara tingkah laku etika subordinat dengan tingkah laku etika ketua adalah negatif dun tidak signifikan. Sehubungan itu, kajian menunjukkan tiada cukup bukti untuk menyatakan ada pengaruh tingkah laku etika ketua terhadap tingkah laku etika subordinat. Sungguhpun begitu, tingkah laku etika ketua didapati berkecenderungan rnenerangkan varians tingkah laku etika subordinat secara negatif. Hasil kajian juga menunjukkan pendedahan subjek etika yang diperolehi subordinat semasa belajar dun dalam perkhidmatan secara langsung berpotensi mempengaruhi tingkah laku etika subordinat. Kajian juga menunjukkan pendedahan subjek etika secara formal masih diperlukan kerana ia berkorelasi secara positif dengun tingkah laku etika subordinat.
Kata kunci: Etika, tingkah laku, moral, ketua, subordinat, bank.

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