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International Journal of Management Studies (IJMS) Vol. 11, Special Issue, February 2004

Organizational Commitment and the New Workforce: A Review of Antecedents, Outcomes and Relevance
Zakaria Ismail
Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences
International Islamic University Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ Full Text
Organizational commitment is an important organizational concept in the study of employee work behavior, especially withdrawal behavior. It was the focus of employee behavioral study for about four decades until in the late 1990s when people began to question the usefulness or the relevancy of the construct especially among the new workforce. This article reviews the concept of organizational commitment, and the development of multiple-dimensional constructs. This article also reviews its antecedents and outcomes. There is a long list of possible antecedents, but these can be categorized into organizational variables (e.g., organizational support, organizational dependability, leadership), job related variables (e.g., job characteristics, empowerment, role conflict and ambiguity), and individual variables (e.g., age, gender, educational levels). The outcome variables which are consistently related to organizational commitment are turnover intention and absenteeism, and to a certain extent, work performance. The issue of the relevance of commitment was also reviewed, and this paper concludes that it is too early to write off organizational commitment, as recent empirical evidence indicated that organizational commitment is still a useful concept in the study of professionals, and the new workforce. This article suggests that future research in organizational commitment needs to focus especially on organizations undergoing downsizing, mergers and acquisitions, and among the new workforce such as Generation-X employees, knowledge workers, and telecommuters.
Keywords: Organizational commitment, antecedents and outcomes, Generation- X employees, professionals, knowledge workers, and telecommuters.

Consumer Ethnocentrism: The Relationship with Domestic Products Evaluation and Buying Preferences
Nazlida Muhamad @ Hashim
Faculty of Business Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Razli Che Razak
Faculty of Technology Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
Malaysia is one ASEAN developing county, which has attracted the attention of foreign investors and marketers. ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), which was realized in 2003, brings foreign products to Malaysian consumers with more affordable deals. The issue of globalisation that has been debated around the world could also carry the same impact or even more towards local products. One party that plays a major role in these issues is the Malaysian consumer. Do they think domestic products are of good quality? Are they willing to buy domestic products? These are the questions that should be answered in determining the future of domestic products. Consumer ethnocentrism is a marketing concept/construct that measures consumers' prejudice against imports. Consumers who score high on consumer ethnocentrism overestimate domestic products' and underestimate imports. The objective of this study is to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism has an impact on Malaysian consumers buying preferences and domestic products' evaluations. Findings from this study showed that more than 80% of the respondents were highly ethnocentric consumers. Results also showed that consumer ethnocentrism has a significant relationship to buying preferences and domestic products' evaluations. Despite positive evaluation on domestic products' evaluation, preferences to buy domestic products found to be varied across types of products. The sample most preferred to buy domestic food products and rated no preference to domestic cars and personal computers. The study also found that demographic variables of age, gender, income and education have no significant relationship with consumer ethnocentrism. The implications of the study and future research areas are also discussed.
Keywords: consumer ethnocentrism, buying preferences, product evaluation, international marketing.

Modeling Production of Audio Systems Using Simulation
Zurina Hanafi & Razman Mat Tahar
Faculty of Quantitative Science
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
The manufacturing sector has become an essential sector in Malaysia. This sector needs to be efficient and sound in facing great competition. Reducing costs will ensure that manufacturing companies remain competitive in the market. This study was conducted in a manufacturing company that produces audio systems by using simulation technique. Simulation technique can help the management team in making the right decisions. The objectives of the study are to identify the problems arising in the system and to forecast the throughput based on several scenarios. The aim of these scenarios is to see the system performance. System performance is determined by looking at total output and cycle time. The percentage of resource utilization, waiting time and queue time is also taken into consideration. Three scenarios were built in order to see the performance of the system after the throughputs were increased. ARENA software was used in modeling the system.
Keywords: Simulation, manufacturing systems, system performance, assembly line.

Utilization of Subnetworks through Distributed Gateway in Lan Environment
Ahmad Basri Hashim, Roshidi Din, Md Zahir Mat Cha & Azmi Md Saman
Faculty of Information Technology
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
It is a globally accepted fact that there is a significant increase in the use of Internet in a local area network (LAN) environment. Whilst the reliance (dependence) on the costly, and d z ~ c u l to maintain, hardware and software brings about problems for organizations with small budget, the full utilization of networks is questionable, for example, at schools and colleges where server failure consistently occurs that leads toward inability to access the Internet. To address issues relating to this matter, this paper discusses on the viable alternative of IP masquerading that allows the interconnection of sub networks and distribution of gateways in a multiple internal LAN environment. For the server which acts as a gateway to the Internet, an IP masquerading distribution based on Linux is used. A distributed gateway based on alternative routes to other gateways in deferent sub networks will minimize disconnections. The situation will ensure reliable and continuous connection through alternative sub networks in the event of a connection failure in adjoining sub-network. This results in a reliable and cheaper LAN-Internet connection through the IP masquerading servers as an alternative to proxy server software. It also ensures reliable and continuous Internet connection through an alternative sub network in the event of a connection failure in an adjoining sub network.

A Reexamination of the Role of Exports in Malaysia's Economic Growth: After Asian Financial Crisis, 1970-2000
Ghin Yin Leow
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ  Full Text
There has been intense debate between outward-oriented and inward-oriented trade strategies to foster industrialisation and hence economic growth. This has prompted considerable number of studies on the export-led growth (ELG) hypothesis. However, most studies examining the export-led growth (ELG) hypothesis either in developing or developed countries produced mixed results, or in some cases, contradictory results. Thus, the purpose of this study is to re-examine the ELG hypothesis in Malaysia, after the 1997 Asianfinancia1 crisis using a 6 variable model by considering the relationship between real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and real exports, with real imports, real effective exchange rate, real gross fixed capital formation and real GDP of the United States (U.S.) to exert their influence. This study covers quarterly data from 1970 to 2000 to see any impact of the 1997financial crisis on Malaysia's economic growth and export linkage. Using the Augmented Dickey Fuller unit root test, the underlying series are tested as non-stationary in levels but stationary in first differences. Using the recent time series econometrics technique of Johansen-Juselius (1990) Multivariate Cointegration Test and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), this analysis found that the ELG hypothesis is only a short term phenomenon. The results reported strong empirical evidence to support bi-directional growth between exports and output, and a positive short term relationship between them. However, in the long-run, the positive impact of exports on economic growth tends to diminish, shown by the insignificant coefficient of the error correction term. Support was also found for the internally-generated growth hypothesis from the export equation. No structural breaks were reported in the Chow Test. This means that the 1997Asianfinancial crisis did not cause any major 'disturbances' in our economy.
Keywords: Asian financial crisis; cointegration; causality; export-led growth; Malaysia

Impacts of the Western Hemisphere Free Trade Area on the International Trade of Soybean Oil, Soybean Meal and Soybeans
Abdul Hamid Jaafar
Faculty of Economics
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract  Ɩ Full Text
A major multi-country free trade agreement currently under negotiation is the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The agreement is proposed to be operational by January 2005 and will encompass 34 countries in the Western Hemisphere. Soybeans and soybean products are important export commodities in the Western Hemisphere. It is expected that tariffs and duties on these commodities will be intensely negotiated. The purpose of this paper is to analyze effects of the FTAA implementation on international trade of soybean oil, soybean meal and soybeans. Emphases of investigations are on how the implementation of FTAA is affected by Brazil's soybean output expansion and China's accession into the World Trade Organization. The method of analysis is via the spatial equilibrium model that includes all countries in the Western Hemisphere and several regions outside the hemisphere. Four alternative trade scenarios were simulated and their results were compared with those from the baseline model. A11 scenarios indicated that the U.S. and Brazil would be able to at least expand their exports of soybean oil or soybean meal.

Do Asian Stock Market Prices Follow Random Walk? A Revisit
Kian-Ping Lim
Labuan School of International Business and Finance
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Muzafar Shah Habibullah
Faculty of Economics and Management
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Hock-Ann Lee
Labuan School of International Business and Finance
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Abstract  Ɩ Full Text
This study re-examines the price behaviour of Asian stock markets in light of the random walk hypothesis. With a new statistical tool, namely the Brock- Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) test, it is possible for researchers to detect more complex form of dependencies in series of financial returns that often appear completely random to standard statistical tests, such as serial correlation tests, runs test, variance ratio test and unit root tests. Our results suggest that all the returns series in general do not follow a random walk process. This conclusion holds in both sub-periods (pre- and post-crisis) for Bangkok S.E.T. (BSET), Jakarta SE Composite (JSE), Kuala Lumpur SE Composite (KLSE), Korea SE Composite (KSE), and the Philippines SE Composite (PSE). For Hong Kong Hang-Seng (HKHS), the empirical results support our conjecture that the Asian financial crisis in 1997 adversely affected the market's ability to price stocks efficiently, thus preventing stock prices from following a random walk process. In particular, the price behaviour of this market experienced a dramatic change from random walk in the pre-crisis period to non-random during the crisis.
Keywords: Random walk, weak-form efficiency, BDS test, Asian Stock Markets.

Amalan Perekrutan oleh Firma di Malaysia: Satu Kajian Empirikal
Tang Swee Mei
Fakulti Pembangunan Sosial dan Manusia
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Lim Kong Teong
Fakulti Pengurusan Teknologi
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ  Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan menyelidik amalan perekrutan semasa di Malaysia  khususnya terhadap jawatan pengurusan. la juga bertujuan untuk meneliti tahap pengetahuan personal dan tahap penggunaan teknik perekrutan. Seterusnya, kajian ini juga meninjau persepsi pengurus sumber manusia tentang keberkesanan teknik perekrutan dalam mendapatkan pekerja yang berkualiti dan yang dapat menunjukkan prestasi kerja yang tinggi. Berdasarkan kepada skor purata, hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa tahap pengetahuan personal terhadap teknik perekrutan adalah lebih tinggi berbanding dengan tahap penggunaan oleh syarikat. Hasil kajian juga mengesahkan teknik perekrutan tradisional seperti iklan surat khabar, resume dan rujukan pekerja masih popular digunakan.
Kata kunci: perekrutan, pengetahuan, keberkesanan, kegunaan, kualiti.

Perbandingan Penggunaan Algoritma Krzyzak dengan Algoritma Rambatan Balik Piawai dalam Domain Peramalan
Razana Alwee, Roselina Sallehuddin & Siti Mariyam Hj. Shamsuddin
Fakulti Sains Komputer t3 Sistem Maklumat
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ  Full Text
Artikel ini bertujuan mengkaji prestasi rangkaian neural menggunakan algoritma Krzyzak  dengan algoritma rambatan balik piawai dalam domain peramalan. Kajian dilakukan terhadap data siri masa tak bermusimiaitu pengeluaran hasil kayu balak negara. Ukuran prestasi adalah berdasarkan dua perkara iaitu ketepatan ramalan yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan ralat purata kuasadua (RMS) dan masa pembelajaran, iaitu masa yang diambil oleh setiap model untuk menumpu. Hasil kajian menunjukkan dengan pemilihan pemalar pembelajaran yang kecil, algoritma Krzyzak adalah lebih baik berbanding algoritma rambatan balik piawai bagi peramalan jangka sederhana dan jangka panjang.
Kata kunci:Rangkaian Neural, Algoritma Rambatan Balik, Algoritma Krzyzak, Peramalan, Data Siri Masa.

Peranan Pengalaman Mengajar dalam Hubungan antara Komitmen terhadap Profesion dengan Prestasi Kerja
Abdull Sukor Shaari, Noran Fauziah Yaakub & Rosna Awang Hashim
Fakulti Sains Kognitif Pendidikan
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ  Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mengukur tahap komitmen terhadap profesion di kalangan guru-guru sekolah menengah, (2) mengenal pasti hubungannya dengan prestasi kerja, dan (3) mengenal pasti pengaruh pengalaman mengajar sebagai penyederhana hubungan antara komitmen terhadap profesion dan prestasi kerja. Data kajian dikutip melalui kaedah tinjauan menggunakan soalselidik. Kajian ini menggunakan sebanyak 370 guru yang dipilih secarapersampelan rawak berstrata dari 108 buah sekolah menengah di negeri Kedah. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan sebahagian besar responden mempunyai komitmen yang tinggi terhadap profesion. Terdapat hubungan yang signifikan dan positif antara komitmen dengan prestasi kerja. Pengalaman mengajar didapati berperanan sebagai penyederhana hubungan antara komitmen terhadap profesion dengan prestasi kerja.

Kepentingan Modal Sosial dalam Pertumbuhan Ekonomi
Abu Sufian Abu Bakar & Anizah Md. Ali
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ  Full Text
Modal sosial mwupakan salah satu daripada bentuk modal, sama seperti modal fizikal, modal pengeluaran ekonomi dun juga modal manusia yang mempunyai peranan tersendiri dalam menyumbang kepada pertumbuhan dun kesejahteraan masyarakat sebuah negara. Modal fizikal merupakan input pengeluaran yang digabungkan dengan input buruh bagi menghasilkan output. Pelaburan ke atas modal manusia dilihat sebagai salah satu sumber yang menjadi pemangkin kepada pertumbuhan sesebuah negara. Modal sosial kini dilihat sebagai satu daripada sumber baru yang secara tidak langsung menyumbang kepada pertumbuhan sesebuah negara. Namun, kajian terhadapsumbangan modal sosial ini masih baru, dun definisi tentang maksud modalsosial ini juga adalah pelbagai. Pengukuran modal sosial memerlukan kepadapemerhatian fungsi sebuah masyarakat, dun bagaimana jaringan antara individu dalam sebuah masyarakat menyumbang kepada pertumbuhan positif kepada individu, kurnpulan kaum dun juga masyarakat keseluruhan. Pemahaman ini akan memberikan satu gambaran bagaimana individu dalam sebuah masyarakat itu bekerjasama mencapai matlamat bersama untuk membina sesebuah negara yang makmur. Artikel ini cuba memaparkan peranan yang dimainkan oleh modal sosial dalam membantu pertumbuhan ekonomi sesebuah negara. Petunjuk Indeks Pembangunan Insan (HDI) yang diguna pakai oleh Bank Dunia akan dijadikan sebagai asas untuk melihathubungan antara pertumbuhan ekonomi dun modal sosial. Hasil analisisregresi terhadap hubungan antara HDI dun Keluaran Dalam Negara Kasar(KDNK) per kapita menunjukkan wujud hubungan positif yang signifikan.
Kata kunci: modal sosial, modal manusia, pertumbuhan ekonomi.

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