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ANALISIS Jilid 10, Bil. 2. Disember 2003

Strategic Management: Origin, Process, Approaches and Theories
Mohamed Sulaiman
School of Management
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Mohd. Khairuddin Hashim
Faculty of Business Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Much has been written in the literature about the importance of strategic management in organizations. Regardless of size, organizations are seeking and identifying effective strategies through the strategic management process to assist them in the successful management of their businesses. Notwithstanding the tremendous attraction of strategic management, scant attention has been given to investigate its development to the current level of understanding. Based on the literature, this article examines its origin, process, approaches and theories.

Aggregate Import Demand and Expenditure Components in Japan: An Empirical Study
Tuck Cheong Tang
School of Business
Monash University, Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This Paper investigates the determinants of Japan's aggregate import demand function. In contrary with traditional specification of using single real income variable, the present study examines the various components of real income that are final consumption expenditure, domestic investment and expenditure on export goods, and relative prices. The 'bounds' testing approach in Pesaran et al. (2001), which based on estimation of unrestricted error-correction model (UECM) was used for cointegration analysis over the sample period 1973-1997. The result confirms a cointegrating relation among the quantity of import and its determinants as well as various expenditure components. The various expenditure components provide different impacts on Japan's imports volume in short run. The UECM appears to track the data well.
Keywords : aggregate import demand function, expenditure components, cointegration, Bounds test, unrestricted error correction model.

Economic Values of Wetlands Conservation from the Perspective of Urban Non-Users
Jamal Othman
Faculty of Economics
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Shahariah Asmuni
School of Economics
Universiti Teknologi Mara
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Benefits of wetlands resources that are tradable in the market, for example, wood products and fish are readily observable through market prices. However, non-marketable benefits such as the preservation of environmental functions and ecosystems are less objective. This study applies the Dichotomous- Choice Contingent Valuation Method on the Paya Indah wetlands in Kuala Langat, Selangor to estimate the non-marketed benefits of conserving the wetland from the perspective of non-users, in particular among urban households in Selangor. Results indicate that the mean willingness to pay (equivalent surplus) which reflects the non-use values of Paya Indah wetlands accrued to urban non-user households in Selangor ranges from RM28 - RM31 annually. The large sum of monetary value that households place in the conservation of Paya Indah illustrates partially the magnitude of social benefits that society at large obtains from the assurance that the wetland is to be maintained as a site for nature conservation. This strongly indicates that conservation of the wetlands is highly valued by the general public.

The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Internet Usage in the Organization
T. Ramayah, Yuserrie Zainuddin & Fok Chee Youn
School of Management
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The rapid growth of Internet usage in organizations has become a common phenomenon in today's business world. The boom of Internet usage in organizations as a new means of performing common tasks such as communicating, finding information, disseminating information and doing marketing research, can be attributed to the benefits brought about by the Internet technology and its wide usage. In order to understand what drives an individual to use the Internet in the organizations, this study examines the impact of self-efficacy of an individual on Internet use. Self- efficacy is the belief in one's capabilities of using Internet in accomplishing specific tasks such as sending emails, searching product information and checking stock quotes. This study uses the extended technology acceptance model (TAM) proposed by Venkatesh (1999) that explicitly incorporates self-efficacy and its determinants (experience and organizational support) as factors that affect perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and the use of Internet. A total of 104 usable responses were received from the questionnaires distributed to those who work in the organizations that provide employees with Internet access. The findings indicate that perceived usefulness has direct effect on Internet usage. Computer experience and organizational support have direct impact on self- efficacy and Internet usage. Organizational support has direct impact on perceived usefulness. Self- efficacy has direct impact on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of Internet usage, demonstrating its importance in the decision to use Internet and it has indirect effect on Internet usage. Perceived usefulness was found to partially mediate the relationship between computer experience and organizational support with Internet usage. It is also interesting to note that ease of use was not significant in determining Internet usage whereas perceived usefulness was, thus indicating the utility is much more important than ease of use. The implications of these findings and the limitations of this study are further discussed for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

A Model for Assessing Content Strategies of Political Web Sites
Shahizan Hassan
Faculty of Information Technology
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Feng Li
Newcastle School of Management
University of New Castle Upon Tyne
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Despite hundreds of web sites published daily all over the world, to date, there is very little information on how we can evaluate web site content strategies, particularly of political web sites. This paper presents an attempt top21 this gap by introducing a model for evaluating content strategies of political web sites by adopting the Attracting, Informing, Positioning, and Delivering (AIP'PD) approach. Twenty political web sites from four different countries - Malaysia, United Kingdom, United States, and Australia, were analysed comprehensively to elicit the AIPD content elements. A total of 51 elements were identified that represent the basis for the content assessment model.

Non-Linear Dynamics in Bilateral Malaysian Ringgit - U. S. Dollar Spot Rates
Kian-Ping Lim
Labuan School of International Business and Finance
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
M. Azali & Muzafar Shah Habibullah
Faculty of Economics and Management
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study empirically investigates the presence of non-linearity in the Malaysian exchange rates returns series. Our bispectrum results reveal that the underlying generating process of the Malaysian exchange rates is governed by non-linear dynamics. With this evidence of non-linearity, researchers can no longer take the linear assumption for granted as it has profound implications on the robustness of their empirical results. Thus, this study points to the need to employ formal linearity test as a preliminary diagnostic tool to determine the nature of the data generating process of the series under investigation before any further empirical analysis.
Keywords : Non-linearity, Hinich bispectrum test, Malaysian foreign exchange market.

IPO Profit Guarantees and Income Smoothing
Wan Nordin Wan-Hussin
Faculty of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Noraizan Ripain
School of Business and Management
Kolej Universiti Teknologi & Pengurusun Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
A unique feature of the initial public offering (IPO) market in Malaysia during 1996-1999 was the imposition of IPO profit guarantees for a three year period subsequent to listing on the major shareholders of the newly listed Second Board companies. This study investigates the income smoothing behavior on a sample of 92 IPO companies with profit guarantees, of which 54 of them reported profit guarantee surpluses. For each of the companies, Eckel’s Income Smoothing Index (1981) is calculated based on two sub-periods i.e. (1) ten-year period comprising five years before and five years after listing and (2) profit guarantee period a year before the start of the profit guarantee period and a year after the end of the profit guarantee period. The evidence indicates that there is no significant difference in income smoothing between companies with IPO profit guarantee surplus and IPO profit guarantee shortfall for both sub-periods. We argue that the controlling shareholders need not resort to income smoothing to avoid the costly profit guarantee shortfall as they could easily seek variations in the original profit guarantee agreement. Further analyses show that income smoothing is more prevalent among smaller companies and construction companies, based on a ten-year period but not on the profit guarantee period.

The Performance of User Verification Using Two Fingerprints Based on Error Rates
Mohamad Amir Abu Seman, Hatim Mohamad Tahir & Roshidi Din
Faculty of Information Technology
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Biometric technologies, especially fingerprint verification, have started to attract users around the world to use it to secure their places or properties. The current implementation of a fingerprint verification system has faced several problems such as noisy finger and fingerprint misplacement by the user. To solve or minimise this kind of problem, the approach using two fingerprints on the verification process has been tried in this research. Two classifiers are used to study the performance level of the system, and compared to the current system that uses a single fingerprint. In this research, total error rate has been used as an indicator to the performance level of the system.

Proses Hierarki Analitik dalam Proses Penilaian Pelajar Cemerlang
Bahtiar Jamili Zaini, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu Bakar & Nor Idayu Mahat
Fakulti Sains Kuantitatif
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini membincangkan bagaimana teknik Proses Hierarki Analitik digunakan untuk membantu pihak pembuat keputusan memilih calon bakal graduan yang layak untuk menerima anugerah pelajar cemerlang semasa majlis konvokesyen universiti. Sebanyak enam kriteria telah dikenal pasti sebagai panduan kepada dua kumpulan pembuat keputusan iaitu pihak pentadbiran dan kumpulan pelajar untuk menentukan calon pilihan yang terbaik. Hasil analisis mendapati bahawa kriteria keputusan PMK memperoleh nilai pemberat tertinggi dan calon pertama layak untuk diberi penganugerahan berdasarkan kepada pemberat kriteria yang diberikan oleh kedua-dua kumpulan. Teknik ini didapati sesuai untuk digunakan kerana ianya adalah konsisten dan boleh mengelakkan bias.
Kata kunci: Proses Hierarki Analitik, pembuatan keputusan.

Hubungan Kurvilinear Rujukan Mulut dan Persepsi Kepuasan: Kajian ke atas Institusi Bank di Malaysia
Ting Ding Hooi
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Artikel ini adalah mengenai kajian ke atas institusi perbankan di Malaysia. Kajian ini dijalankan ekoran daripada pembangunan baru dalam konstruk kepuasan di mana pengkaji konstruk kepuasan masa kini telah mencadangkan fungsi kepuasan sebagai fungsi bukan linear yakni fungsi kuadratik dan mempunyai hubungan susunan tinggi (kurvilinear) serta kesan interaksi. Hal ini bermakna kajian kepuasan sehingga ke peringkat ini kebanyakannya berdasarkan kepada paradigma yang silap. Kajian ini telah membuka ruang kepada penjanaan perspektif baru di mana pengkaji telah membuktikan bahawa wujudnya hubungan tidak linear fungsi kepuasan dengan gelagat pembelian di mana pemboleh ubah pemilikan bank telah digunakan sebagai pemboleh ubah penyederhana. Penggunaan pemboleh ubah pemilikan bank sebagai pemboleh ubah penyederhana juga menunjukkan bahawa pemilikan bank oleh orang tempatan berupaya untuk menyederhanakan hubungan antara rujukan mulut dan kepuasan. Analisis regresi penyederhana hierarki telah digunakan untuk mengkaji kesan interaksi tersebut. Fungsi susunan tinggi dan kewujudan kesan interaksi juga telah dibuktikan dalam kajian ini.

Kesan Faktor Anak ke atas Penyertaan Tenaga Buruh Wanita Berkahwin di Kedah: Satu Analisis Model Multinomial Logit
Lim Hock Eam & Zalina Mohd Mohaideen
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji kesan faktor anak ke atas penyertaan tenaga buruh wanita berkahwin di negeri Kedah. Kesan faktor anak ini dibahagikan kepada bilangan anak dan kos penjagaan anak. Berdasarkan model multinomial logit yang dianggarkan, bilangan anak didapati mempunyai kesan sut negatif yang signifikan dan tidak liner ke atas kebarangkalian bekerja, di mana kesan sut bilangan anak berumur 0-1.4 tahun dan 1.5-2.4 tahun adalah paling signifikan. Bilangan anak juga didapati mempunyai kesan sut yang lebih besar ke atas kebarangkalian bekerja sebagai pekerja, berbanding sebagai majikan, serta sebagai pekerja keluargalsendiri. Kos penjagaan anak melibatkan perbelanjaan ke atas taman asuhan dan tadika, didapati tiada kesan negatif yang signifikan. Kos penjagaan anak selain taman asuhan dan tadika mempunyai kesan signifikan yang negatif. Kesan negatif ini didapati lebih besar pada peringkat perbelanjaan RM300 sebulan dan kurang daripadanya. Hal ini bererti subsidi kerajaan ke atas perbelanjaan kos penjagaan anak selain taman asuhan dan tadika dijangka dapat membantu meningkatkan penyertaan tenaga buruh wanita berkahwin terutamanya kepada mereka yang membelanjakan RM300 sebulan dan kurang daripadanya. Walau bagaimanapun, keberkesanan polisi pemberian subsidi ini tertakluk kepada kekangan bahawa keanjalan penyertaan tenaga buruh ke atas kos penjagaan anak ini adalah tidak anjal.
Kata kunci: Kebarangkalian bekerja, wanita berkahwin, model multinomial logit, kesan bilangan anak, kesan kos penjagaan anak, keanjalan penyertaan tenaga buruh.

Pelaburan Langsung Asing (PLA) dan Pertumbuhan Ekonomi: Bukti Empirikal
Mohd Azlan Shah Zaidi, Zulkefly Abdul Kalum & Aminudin Mokhtar
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Objektif utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji secara empirikal hubungan jangka panjang dan arah sebab-menyebab antara pelaburan langsung asing (PLA) dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi di negara-negara sedang membangun dan negara-negara maju terpilih dalam tempoh 1970 hingga tahun 2000. Bagi mencapai objektif ini, kaedah kointegrasi Johansen (1988) diaplikasikan untuk melihat hubungan jangka panjang antara pemboleh ubah tersebut, manakala Model Vektor Pembetulan Ralat (Vector Error Correction Model-VECM) dan ujian sebab-menyebab Granger (1969) pula digunakan untuk melihat hubungan arah sebab-menyebab. Keputusan kajian mendapati arah sebab-menyebab antara PLA dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi di negara sedang membangun dan negara maju adalah tidak selaras. Sebahagian negara menunjukkan kepentingan PLA sebagai penyebab kepada pertumbuhan ekonomi manakala sebahagian negara lain menunjukkan keputusan yang sebaliknya. Di kebanyakan negara sedang membangun, pertumbuhan ekonomi menjadi penyebab kepada pertumbuhan PLA manakala di kebanyakan negara maju pula, pertumbuhan PLA menjadi penyebab kepada pertumbuhan ekonomi kecuali di negara Amerika Syarikat dan United Kingdom.
Kata Kunci: Pelaburan langsung asing (PLA), Pertumbuhan ekonomi, Kointegrasi, Penyebab Granger, Model vektor pembetulan ralat (VECM).

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