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ANALISIS Jilid 9 Bil. 1 & 2 Jun/Disember 2002

INVITED ARTICLE
 
Digital Equity: Issues And Models
Halim Shafie
Ministry of Communication and Multimedia
Malaysia
 
What Digital Equity is All About? Ɩ Full Text
Digital equity is normally referred to as the quick, easy, and appropriately functional access to Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) equipment and tools (e.g. computers, telephones and the internet), as well as access to training to ensure effective access and use. The use of the word "access" is to highlight that ownership does not necessarily equate with use, and therefore, ownership of household ICT does not necessarily mean that all individuals within that household own or use the technology. This implies that the statistical figures on such matters must be interpreted with extra caution.
 

 
ARTICLES
 
Awareness of Private Sector of the IMT-GT Concept: Benefits and Problems
Fatimah Wati Ibrahim, Munzarina Ahmad Samidi, Sallahuddin Hassan & Noor Al-Huda Abdul Karim
School of Economics
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper focuses on the private sector awareness of the Indonesia-Malaysia- Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) concept, the benefits that can be gained as well as the problems encountered in the economic cooperation @the area. Analysis was done using data collected from a survey of 157 private companies located in the three countries' sub-regions. The survey was conducted in 1997. The results of the study show that 78.9 percent of the total respondents are aware of the existence of the IMT-GT concept. However, out of the total respondents who are aware, 29 percent are still unclear about its purpose. In terms of the companies ' participation in the form of business venture in the sub-regions, the survey found that only 10.2 percent of the respondents are involved. Of those companies which formed this type of business after the establishment of the IMT-GT, the finding reveals that they faced problems of wage rate and regulation, each with 43.8 percent; language and culture as well as market potential, each with 31.2 percent; and bureaucratic and infra-structural problems, each with 18.8 percent. In fact, there are many potential opportunities available within the IMT-GT sub-regions that are in line with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) report. The trade and tourism projects are among those opportunities that have great potential in the triangle cooperation. This study, shows that the existing problems and constraints faced by private companies involved in the IMT-GT area have to be tackled, seriously if the objectives of the regional cooperation is to be fulfilled.
 

 
Pendekatan Kabur dalam Keutamaan Pilihan Pengguna
Jasmani Bidin
Universiti Teknologi Mara
Kampus Arau
 
Abu Osman Md. Tap
Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini membincangkan pendekatan kabur dan penerapannya dalam menganalisis tahap keutamaan pilihan pengguna yang melibatkan ciri-ciri subjektif dan tidak persis. Kaedah ini mempunyai kelebihan dalam member interpretasi yang munasabah dan bermakna terhadap darjah keserasian kepada takrif awal set untuk nilai linguistik kabur. Data kajian ini merupakan data ordinal yang dicerap daripada sekumpulan 124 responden. Hasil kajian ini dapat membuktikan teknik analisis kabur berkeupayaan menyelesaikan masalah yang berkaitan dengan maklumat ringkas dan tidak berketentuan dari maklum balas responden. Teknik kabur yang digunakan dalam menganalisis data iaitu konjoin kabur.
 

Intersectoral Integration In Malaysian Economic Transition and Change: A Cointegration Analysis

Tuck Cheong Tang
School of Business
Monash University, Malaysia
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
The present study investigates empirically the inter-sector integration in Malaysian economic transition and change over the period 1960- 1998. It is obvious that all the economic sectors moved together over time and none of them developed in its own way. The interest GDP (Gross Domestic Product) sectors are outputs of agriculture, manufacturing, and services. The results of cointegration analysis (Pesaran et al., 2001) find no long run equilibrium relationship among these sectors. In the short run, the agriculture output influences the manufacturing output, and affects services output negatively. The manufacturing sector has little influence on agriculture output. The implications that can be drawn are that long-term structural and integrated policies are necessary to bring back the sectors' disequilibrium in economy. It-can be implemented through sound fiscal and monetary policies. In addition, promoting agriculture sector growth is needed because any increase in agricultural output might have positive and sizeable effects on the manufacturing output.
 
Keywords: cointegration; bounds test; intersectoral integration; unrestricted error correction model.
 

 

Scaling Symmetric Rank One Update for Unconstrained Optimization

Malik Abu Hassan, Mansor Monsi & Leong Wah June
Department of Mathematics
Universiti Putra Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
A basic disadvantage to the symmetric rank one (SR1) update is that the SRI update may not preserve positive definiteness when starting with a positive definite approximation. A simple remedy to this problem is to restart the update with the initial approximation mostly the identity matrix whenever this difficulty arises. However, numerical experience shows that restart with the identity matrix is not a good choice. Instead of using the identity matrix we used a positive multiple of the identity matrix. The used positive scaling factor is the optimal solution of the measure defined by the problem - maximize the determinant subject to a bound of 1 on the largest eigenvalue. This measure is motivated by considering the volume of the symmetric difference of the two ellipsoids, which arise from the current and updated quadratic models in quasi-Newton methods. A replacement in the form of positive multiple of identity matrix is provided for the SR1 when it is not positive definite. Our experiments indicate that with such simple scale, the effectiveness of the SR1 method is increased dramatically.
 
Keywords. Symmetric rank one, Volume of ellipsoid, Unconstrained optimization.
 

 
Sumbangan Produktiviti Keseluruhan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Output Industri Skel Kecil dan Sederhana (IKS) di Malaysia
Rahmah Ismail & Chai Nyet Fung
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Industri Skel Kecil dan Sederhana (IKS) merangkumi hampir 90 peratus pertubuhan pembuatan di Malaysia. Namun demikian, sumbangan IKS terhadap nilai ditambah sektor pembuatan hanyalah sekitar 26 peratus. Salah satu punca rendahnya nilai ditambah IKS adalah tahap produktiviti dan kecekapannya yang rendah serta tidak mampu menikmati ekonomi ikut bidangan. Dalam hubungan ini, penyumbang nilai ditambah dan pertumbuhan output tidak boleh semata-mata ditumpukan kepada input fizikal seperti modal dan buruh, tetapi usaha meningkatkan sumbangan produktiviti faktor keseluruhan (total factor productivity atau TFP) perlulah dipertingkatkan.TFP merujuk kepada output tambahan yang dijana melalui peningkatan kecekapan. Sekiranya sumbangan TFP dapat dipertingkatkan, maka akan berlaku penjimatan kos pengeluaran dan firma akan menjadi Iebih berdaya saing. Artikel ini bertujuan mengukur sejauh mana pertumbuhan TFP menyumbang kepada pertumbuhan output IKS. Perbincangan dalam artikel ini akan membandingkan senario dalam Industri Skel Kecil (ISK) dan Industri Skel Sederhana (ISS). Dalam setiap saiz industri ini pula perbandingan antara pelbagai sub-industri akan dilakukan. Bagi tujuan ini, enam jenis industri yang berasaskan sumber iaitu makanan, minuman, berasaskan kayu, kimia berasaskan getah dan galian bukan logam, dipilih daripada data Penyiasatan Industri Pembuatan, Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia antara 1981-1994. Kaedah yang digunakan dalam mengukur TFP adalah perbatasan stokastik atau stochastic frontier dengan komponen TFP dipecahkan kepada dua bahagian iaitu kecekapan teknik dan kemajuan teknologi.
 
Kata Kunci: industri skel kecil dan sederhana, produktiviti faktor keseluruhan, kecekapan teknik, kemajuan teknologi, pertumbuhan output.
 

 
Dasar Liberalisasi dan Hubung Kait Dinamik antara Pasaran Saham di Negara-Negara Asia Kian Muncul
Tamat Sarmidi
Jabatan Statistik Ekonomi
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
 
Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah
Jabatan Ekonomi
Universiti Putra Malaysia
 
Annuar Md. Nassir
Jabatan Perakaunan dan Kewangan
Universiti Putra Malaysia
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini menganalisis hubungan dinamik jangka pendek dan jangka panjang antara empat pasaran ekuiti kian muncul (Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia dan Thailand) dan dua pasaran ekuiti utama ASIA (Jepun dan Hong Kong). Kajian empirik dijalankan dalam dua masa berbeza dari 1988 hingga 1991 (sebelum liberalisasi) dan 1992 hingga 1997 (selepas liberalisasi) bagi menyiasat kesan reformasi dasar pasaran terbuka kepada para pelabur asing. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan dasar pasaran terbuka memberi impak kepada hubungan kopengamiran. Keputusan empirik juga membayangkan rantau ASIA semakin berhubung-kait dengan Jepun, Hong Kong dan sesama sendiri selepas dasar liberalisasi.
 
Kata Kunci: Kopengamiran, in tegrasi dan pasaran saham Asia Klasifikasi JEL: C32, G12, F36
 

 
Linkages and Imports of Malaysia, 1978-1987: An Input-Output Approach
Zakariah Abdul Rashid
Faculty of Economics and Management
Universiti Putra Malaysia
 
Soon Jan Jan
School of Economics
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This article examines the inter-sectoral linkages and imports of Malaysia using the input-output approach. The method employed here will be similar to the work of Acharya and Hazari (1 973), where they differentiated between total and domestic linkages. A hypothesis is put forward, stating that there will be low rank correlation between the total and domestic linkages if the import requirements are relatively high. The results of the analysis suggest a distinct characteristic between the industries generating backward and forward linkages respectively. This study found that there is a high correlation between the total and net forward linkage, suggesting the low import requirements for those industries generating forward linkage. These are in contrast with the results found for those industries generating backward linkage, where the correlation between the total and net backward linkage is lower. This suggests that the import requirements for those indutries generating backward linkage are higher than those industries generating forward linkage.
 

 
Profiling and Understanding of Universiti Utara Malaysia Student Acceptance of and Enthusiasm Towards ICT
Hisham Dzakiria
School of Scientific Thinking and Education
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Azilah Kasim
School of Tourism Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Information Communication Technology (ICT) has flourished in almost all sectors i.e. communication, entertainment, education, etc.. In education, ICT is used to maximize educational potential, and it is now widely used as a teaching and learning tool. Nevertheless, the literature seems to suggest that there is still a lack of understanding particularly of student acceptance of and attitude towards ICT in general. This research was an attempt to understand Universiti Utara Malaysia student acceptance of and attitude towards ICT. Among the research objectives of this study were: to profile ICT users at Universiti Utara Malaysia, to determine the importance of ICT usage training to users, to examine student acceptance of, attitudes and enthusiasm towards ICT; and to study if differences in attitude towards ICT exist between gender, academic achievement, ownership of personal computer and ownership of personal computer with ICT facilities. The positive acceptance of students of ICT found in this study reinforces the need for institutions of higher learning in particular and ICT service providers in general to consider providing more and better ICT facilities to its clients. Since training is perceived to be beneficial, the opportunities and diversity of training on ICT usage must be given a priority. To conclude, adequate provisions of ICT facilities and training combined with positive student acceptance of ICT may help an institution achieve its goal of produce an information rich and computer literate students.

 
Peranan Sikap dalam Gelagat Kepatuhan Zakat Pendapatan Gaji
Kamil Md. Idris
Sekolah Perakaunan
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Ai-Imad Mahdzan Ayob
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Laporan menunjukkan aras kepatuhan zakat di kalangan pekerja Islam yang layak zakat boleh dikatakan amat rendah. Salah satu faktor yang menyumbang kepada fenomena ini ialah sikap individu terhadap zakat gaji. Literatur menunjukkan bahawa sikap individu terhadap aktiviti sosial yang beregulasi boleh mempengaruhi gelagat kepatuhannya terhadap aktiviti berkenaan. Bagaimanapun, sikap tersebut dikatakan berkeadaan kompleks. Disebabkan kompleksiti ini, maka ramai penyelidik telah menyarankan supaya sikap dikaji dengan membahagikan objek atau isu sikap berkenaan kepada elmen yang lebih kecil atau lebih mudah. Pembahagian boleh dibuat dengan berasaskan kepada bahagian komponen, fungsi terkhusus, atau konteks tertentu. Justeru itu, kajian ini cuba merungkai komponen sikap terhadap zakat gaji dan implikasinya kepada gelagat kepatuhan. Maklumat daripada literatur menegaskan bahawa kajian ke atas sikap dan memahami impaknya kepada gelagat boleh membantu pihak berwajib menggariskan strategi untuk meningkatkan aras kepatuhan. Justeru itu, kertas ini membentangkan beberapa komponen sikap terhadap zakat gaji dan impaknya kepada gelagat kepatuhan. Komponen sikap ditentukan dengan menggunakan teknik analisis faktor ke atas 24 item sikap. Setiap komponen diberikan nama dan dijadikan sebagai satu pemboleh ubah bebas yang baru. Pemboleh ubah baru ini kemudian diuji untuk melihat hubungannya dengan gelagat kepatuhan. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan bahawa sikap terhadap zakat gaji boleh dibahagikan kepada lima kategori, iaitu Sikap Secara Am, Sikap Positif, Sikap Was-Was, Sikap Bersyarat, dan Sikap Terhadap Perkara Teknikal. Kelima-lima komponen ini diuji dalam model regresi logistik untuk melihat hubungannya dengan gelagat kepatuhan yang diukur secara dikotomus. Hasil ujian menunjukkan bahawa komponen kedua, ketiga, dan keempat berkait secara positif dan signifikan dengan gelagat kepatuhan. Ini menandakan bahawa sikap terhadap zakat gaji adalah kompleks dan perkaitannya dengan gelagat kepatuhan tidak boleh dilihat dari satu sudut.
 

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