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ANALISIS Jilid 7, Bil. 1 & 2 Jun/Disember 2000

Firm Characteristics, Competitive Strategies, Environment and Business Performance: Survey Evidence from Malaysian SMEs
Mohd Khairuddin Hashim
School of Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Syed Azizi Wafa
School of Business and Economics
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Mohamed Sulaiman
School of Management
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This article focuses on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from the strategic management perspective. This article is based on the findings of a sample survey that examined the general relationships between firm characteristics, competitive strategies, environment and business performance of SMEs in the Malaysian manufacturing sector. The sample consisted of 100 SMEs from different industries. The empirical findings suggested different patterns of competitive strategies and performance relations as well as the relationships between firm characteristics, environment and the business performance of the SMEs surveyed.

Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Change, and Technical Efficiency in ASEAN Countries
Mohd. Zaini Abd. Karim
School of Economics
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper analyzes productivity growth in five ASEAN countries over the period 1978-1990. A Malmquist-Data-Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method as introduced by Fare, Grosskopf, Norris, and Zhang (1994) is used to calculate indices of productivity change and its components, technological change, technical efficiency change, and scale efficiency change. Results suggest that, on average, ASEAN countries productivity growth had been declining at a negative rate of 0.5 percent over the study period, mainly due to deterioration in efficiency with which existing technology is utilized rather than a lack of innovation or technological change. The results also show that Singapore is the most efficient economy in the region, while Philippines is the least efficient.

Information Technology in the Malaysian Public Sector
Ang Chooi Leng
School of Quantitative Science
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study explores the use of IT in the Malaysian public sector. It also investigates the role of three categories of contextual variables, namely external, organisational and technological, in relation to the level of IT usage. The results reveal that the usage level is significantly different among the four aspects of office activities being examined, i.e., information and analysis, daily operations, communication, and strategic application. Correlation analysis shows that technological factors are most influential on organisations with high level of IT usage rather than the external and organizational factors. For these organisations, good IT facilities that provide integrated IT applications for strategic intent with good user support and distributed structures promote the use of IT.

Income Inequality in Malaysia: A Decomposition Analysis by Income Sources
Roslan A. Hakim
School of Economics
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper examines the contribution of inequality in income sources to total inequality in Malaysia using the Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS) data. Two measures of inequality are calculated - the Shorrock's and Gini indices of inequality. Both inequality indices are decomposed to its various income sources contribution to total inequality. The results show that a large portion of the total inequality in Malaysia was attributable to labour income, i.e. paid and self-employment. The contribution of capital and transfer incomes (i.e. rent, interest and dividends as well as pensions and EPF) to total inequality appeared to be relatively small. Nonetheless, its contribution has increased. The large contribution of paid and self-employment to total inequality was not because these sources were the most unequally distributed sources, but rather due to their importance in total household income. The results also show that income from rent, interest and dividends was found to have a consistently unequalising gect on inequality. The decomposition analysis highlighted the importance of reducing inequality in paid employment, self-employment, as well as rent, interest and dividends as the best strategy to reduce income inequality in Malaysia.

Time Series Estimation of Malaysia's Export and Import Demand: A Dynamic OLs Method
Nokaznin Abu Bakar
School of Economics
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper examines the long-run relationship of export and import demand of Malaysia using time series analysis techniques that address the problem of non-stationarity. Specifically, the dynamic OLS method and the Johansen Maximum Likelihood are employed to estimate the price and income elasticities. The price and income elasticities for export demand are -0.35 and 0.20 respectively. While the price and income elasticities for import demand are -1.24 and 0.90 respectively. Obviously, the Marshall-Lerner conditions are easily met as the sum of the price elasticities of export and import demand is greater than one, suggesting that appreciations (depreciations) in exchange rates can worsen (improve) the current account in a period of one year.

Keperluan Modal Bank, Risiko dan Pemamahan Kredit Pendekatan Persamaan Serentak
Abd. Ghafar Ismail & Goh Chuan Hai
Fakulti Ekonomi
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan penyelidikan ini ialah untuk menganalisis kesan peraturan Basle terhadap tiga isu utama: (a) adakah pengenalan keperluan modal memberi kesan kepada nisbah modal yang dipegang? (b) adakah bank membuat penyelarasan terhadap modal dan tingkat risiko bagi mencapai keperluan modal minimum pengawal selia dan pasaran? (c) adakah perubahan nisbah modal atau tingkat risiko membawa kepada pemamahan kredit? Bagi menjawab isu-isu tersebut, model ekonometrik yang menggunakan kaedah 3SLS telah dibentuk bagi mengenal pasti faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi nisbah modal, tahap risiko dan pemamahan kredit. Sebagai tambahan, simulasi dilakukan bagi menganalisis counterfactual terhadap beberapa pemboleh ubah eksogen. Analisis deskriptif mendapati kesemua bank di Malaysia telah mencapai keperluan modal minimum pengawal selia. Hasil kajian juga mendapati peningkatan nisbah modal menyebabkan berlakunya pemamahan kredit.
Kata kunci: keperluan modal bank, risiko, pemamahan kredit, pengawalseliaan.

Tax Professionals' Views on Self Assessment System
Jeyapalan Kasipillai & Mustafa Mohd. Hanefah
School of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Malaysia has adopted an Official Assessment System (OAS) whereby taxpayers were assessed by the tax authorities based on the tax returns filed by them. The Malaysian Government has introduced a Self Assessment System (SAS) in stages commencing with companies from 2001. This new strategy require taxpayers to take more responsibility for getting their tax returns correct, since the information which they furnish in their returns will be accepted at face value by the Inland Revenue Board (IRB). The IRB, however, will audit some cases at random and if it has inaccurate information, the taxpayers concerned will be liable for prosecution. This survey focuses on the role of tax professionals under SAS. The findings of the survey reports on tax professionals' views and level of preparation towards the implementation of SAS in Malaysia. The findings also report on problems faced by tax professionals under the existing official assessment tax system and seek to ascertain tax professionals' perception towards the introduction of the new assessment system. Finally, the data provides some input on the preparatory measures to be undertaken by the IRB to facilitate tax practitioners' role in enhancing tax compliance under the new assessment sys tem.
Keywords: Self assessment; tax compliance; tax evasion; tax audit & tax professionals.

An Investigation of the Internationalisation of Malay Firms in Malaysia
Abdul Jumaat Mahajar & Muhammad Nasri Md. Hussain
School of Management
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper explores the impact of Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses Methods on the Internationalisation of Malay Firms in Malaysia. The study was conducted in 11 states and Federal Territory in West Malaysia between 1997-2000. In the quantitative analysis method that was adopted, the data gathered was obtained from 166firms and in the qualitative analyses method, 48 firms were interviewed at the Director and Managerial level of small, medium and large firms. Both methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. The results using a quantitative approach showed that there are 15 barriers faced by Malay firms distracting them from engaging in international business, and the qualitative methods showed that 16 barriers. Having reviewed the two methods of analysis, it was felt that both quantitative and qualitative methods were appropriate for this study.

A Note on the Relationships Between The Stock Market And Macroeconomic Variables in Malaysia: An Empirical Reexamination of Granger Non-Causality Test
Muzafar Shah Habibullah,, M. Azali, W.N.W. Azman-Saini & Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah
Department of Economics
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The purpose of the present paper is to determine whether stock returns are leading Indicator for future economic activity in Malaysia. In this study we employ the Granger non-causality test recently proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) to test the causal relationships between the KLSE stock prices and six macroeconomic variables for the sample period 1981:l to 1994:4. Our results indicate that stock prices are independent with respect with macroeconomic variables, except with money supply.

Testing Factorial Validity of Motivational Constructs Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Rosna Awang Hashim
School of Cognitive Sciences and Education
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The present study examines the validity of the newly translated Malay version of the "State Self-assessment" and "Trait Self-assessment" instruments. These instruments are each composed of three constructs that are considered integral to the social cognitive theories of motivation: self-efficacy, effort, and worry. Data were collected from 360 college undergraduates at Universiti Utara Malaysia. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the measurement model. Multiple group invariance analyses were also conducted to examine whether components of the measurement model were invariant across gender and ethnic groups (Malay and Chinese from Malaysia). Findings provide support for the reliability and factorial validity of the constructs. Results from the multi-group analyses suggest that all constructs are structured similarly across gender and ethnic groups.

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