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ANALISIS Jilid 2, Bil. 1. June 1987

 
Development of Islamic Managerial and Administrative Practices : A Historical Perspective
Syed Othman Alhabshi
Deputy Vice Chancellor, UUM
 
Introduction Ɩ Full Text
Managerial and administrative practices(1) have been inherent in man ever since any known civilisation. It is particularly so when man lives in groups and his needs are beyond his own capability to acquire them. A very good example has been charted by Moses (a.s) in the Exodes of the Children of Israel from Egypt to Sinai. Moses was so involved in solving various kinds of organizational problems that he went up to his father-in-law who replied:
 
"The thing that thou does is not good. Thou wilt surely wear away .... for these things is too heavy for thee, thou are not able to perform it thyself alone ... thou shalt provide out of all the people able men . . . to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fiftees, and rulers of tens."
                                            (Exodus 18: 17-21)(2)
This is indeed an example of decentralization or delegation of authority which is practised to this day. While Moses found it difficult to distribute his time and energy to each individual, he found it convenient to handle only a handful of his deputies. It is natural then that we can derive numerous lessons pertaining to managerial practices from the 14 centuries of Islamic history. This paper is only a meagre and humble attempt to highlight some of the managerial and administrative practices from pre-Islamic period to the present. In order to achieve this objective, we divide this short paper into five sections.
 

 
Comparisons of Secondary Mathematics Education Between Malaysia and the State of California, USA
Nor Azilah Ngah
School of Economics and Public Administration, UUM
 
Introduction Ɩ Full Text
For a developing country like Malaysia, science and technology are considered as tools needed to bring the country into the future. In order to catch up with advanced countries, Malaysia has to tap resources from her main source of wealth, her people. One way of tapping the resources is through education. Educating the people to meet the need of the nation has always been the government’s main concern.
 
Mathematics is an important part of education for it is the foundation of science and knowledge. Education is not complete without exposure to some form of mathematics. Perhaps not everybody can be a mathematician but that does not mean he or she should not be exposed to the subject. The amount of exposure to mathematics will either 'make' or 'break' the students' interest in the area.
 
Therefore, mathematics curriculum in Malaysia has a double responsibility. On one hand it has to be interesting enough so as not to eradicate the interest of the students and on the other it has to be detailed and technical enough to bring the student into the age of science and technology. It would be waste if one is sacrifice for the other.
 
This paper attempts to compare the mathematics education in Malaysia to that of the state of California. Since both places are at different levels in terms of science and technology, it would be interesting to see the similiarities and differences in the approach to mathematical education.
 
Every year a significant number of students who attended secondary schools in Malaysia is being sent abroad namely to the United State and Great Britain for further education. This paper attempts to find out if students who went through the Malaysian mathematics curriculum have the same knowledge of mathematics as those who went through the mathematics curriculum in the state of California. The Malaysian mathematics curriculum discussed in this paper is limited to the Arts and Science streams.
 

 
The Attitudes of Malaysian Students Towards Advertising
Md. Zabid Abdul Rashid & Samsinar Md. Sidin
Department of Management Studies, UPM.
 
Introduction Ɩ Full Text
Advertising is one of the four components in promotion mix. It has been considered as an important tool by firms directing persuasive communication to potential buyers. The purpose is to enhance buyer's response to the products or services offered by the firm, thus increasing its profitability.
 
In Malaysia, the advertising industry has been experiencing an average annual growth of about 20% since 1976. It reached the highest growth rate 23% in 1983, but experienced a declining trend due to sluggish economy in Malaysia between 1984-1986. In 1986, the advertising expenditure amounted to more than $390 million, or 7.7% of the Gross Domestic Product contributed by finance, insurance, real estate and business services. This suggests that a considerable amount of money is spent on advertising in a developing country, thus providing an important contribution to the gross national income.
 
The impending growth in advertising has incited several criticisms. Advertising is believed to have influenced and manipulated consumer's everyday lives (Packard, 1957). It has provided advertising agencies the skills in moulding buyers' thought processes and purchasing decisions. According to Lutz et al. (1983), the attitude towards advertising was a significant mediator of purchase attitude for both low knowledge/low importance products and high knowledge/high importance products. They suggest that affective reactions to the advertisement appear to be almost automatic and require minimal processing any influence affective reactions to the advertised brand. Positive (or negative) feelings associated with the advertisement may become associated with the advertised brand, usually without consumers' awareness. Gardner (1985) found that brand attitudes formed a non-brand set appear to be influenced by both attitudes advertisement and brand related beliefs.
 
Much research has shown that consumer’s brand related beliefs affect brand attitude formation, and further research evidence indicates that brand attitudes may be affected by consumer’s attitudes toward the advertisement themselves (Gardner, 1985; Mitchel and Olsen, 1981). Krugen (1965) asserted that attitude.
 

 
Suatu Nota Tentang Pembentukan Hipotesis
Mohd. Nawi Ab. Rahman
Pusat Komputer, UUM
 
Salah satu daripada langkah utama dalam penyelidikan yang menggunakan kaedah sains adalah pembentukan hipotesis. Langkah ini dilakukan selepas langkah pertama, iaitu penetapan bahawa sesuatu persoalan itu benar-benar wujud. Di bawah langkah ini usaha pencaman, diikuti oleh pemilihan dan perumusan persoalan, berserta dengan kenyataan tujuan penyelidikan dilakukan.
 
Jawapan kepada persoalan yang dirumuskan itu akan lagi memperluaskan sempadan pengetahuan kita tentang sebahagian daripada fenomena dam yang sedia tertulis itu. Hasil peningkatan sains seumpama ini di harapkan akan member manfaat kepada manusia suatu masa nanti, kalau tidak serta merta sekali pun.
Mengikut kaedah yang ditetapkan, persoalan berkenaan diselesaikan menggunakan suatu saranan berbentuk sementara sebagai jawapan kepadanya. Jawapan sementara ini dikatakan hipotesis dalam penyelidikan yang di pertimbangkan. Sifat kesementaraan ini berakhir apabila ia disahkan benar ataupun sebaliknya oleh data, iaitu termasuk maklumat atau keterangan yang dikutip.
 
Ramai daripada ahli penyelidik tidak sedar bahawa kebanyakan data yang dikatakan kualitatif itu boleh ditakrif menjadi kuantitatif, atau berangka. Dengan takrifan yang teliti kepada maklumat yang diperolehi itu maka bolehlah hipotesis diuji menggunakan tatacara pengujian berstatistik. Tatacara seperti ini memerlukan hipotesis dibentuk supaya ia terdiri daripada dua pilihan iaitu hipotesis nul, Ho dan hipotesis ataupun (alternatif), HA. Di peringkat statistik awalan Ho dikaitkan dengan "hipotesis tanpa kesan". Konsep ini sebenarnya banyak membawa kekeliruan dan salah faham kepada penyelidik.
 
Kertas ini merupakan sedikit sumbangan ke arah pemantapan konsep dalam pemilihan di antara Ho dan HA. Ia diharap akan membenihkan perbincangan secara berluasan supaya sempadan pengetahuan kita dalam bahagian ini terus berkembang.
 

 
Perbandingan Kuasa Ujian Kebagusan Penyuaian: Kes Taburan Normal
Ahmad Shukri Yahaya
Pusat Pengajian Kuantitatif, UKM.
 
Pengenalan Ɩ Full Text
Salah satu daripada penggunaan ujian kebagusan penyuaian adalah berkenaan dengan pengujian terhadap taburan bagi sesuatu sampel. Jika ujian itu adalah mengenai persetujuan di antara taburan nilai-nilai daripada sampel dengan taburan populasinya, maka ujian itu digelar ujian kebagusan penyuaian.
Ujian khi-kuasadua (Pearson 1900) yang selalu digunakan untuk menguji ujian kebagusan penyuaian hanya sesuai untuk saiz sampel yang besar sahaja. Enam jenis statistik ujian yang berdasarkan kepada taburan empiriknya dan sesuai untuk sampel saiz kecil dan besar akan digunakan. Kertas ini akan membandingkan kuasa bagi enam statistik ujian berdasarkan kepada beberapa taburan alternatif yang berlainan. Kaedah Monte Carlo (Naylor 1966) digunakan untuk menjanakan variat rawak yang diperlukan untuk menguji kuasa setiap ujian.
 
Statistik ujian yang digunakan
Katakan X = (x1, x2, x3, ………., xn) adalah cerapan tak bersandar n bagi pembolehubah rawak dengan fungsi taburan F0(x) yang tidak diketahui. Andaikan hipotesis yang hendak diuji adalah seperti berikut.
             H0 : F0 = F(x), --------------------------- (2.1)
Untuk setiap x, iaitu sampel dikutip daripada populasi normal F(x) yang parameternya tidak diketahui.
 

     
Income Expectations and the Demand for Money in Malaysia; Some Empirical Evidence
Muzafar Shah Habibullah
Department of Economics, WPM.
 
Introduction Ɩ Full Text
Most economists agree that the demand for money function is stable if the scale variable is defined in term of wealth. Friedman (1959) concluded from an empirical test for the United States that the demand for money is a stable function of, and only of, permanent income, a concept which is very closely related to that of wealth. Metzler (1963) found out that wealth in the model provided a more stable demand-for-money function. If both income and wealth are included, the former variable seem to be redundant in the presence of the later. Chow (1966), Banner and Metzler (1%3), Laidler (1%6, 1977) also had concluded that the money demand function incorporating wealth performed better results and gave more accurate predictions of the velocity of circulation.
 
The above empirical evidences on wealth as the scale variable in the money demand function implies that current income is subjected to uncertainties. This is so because current income is generated as a result of the performance of the economy. This situation is more critical particularly for the developing countries. It is noted that the developing country's incomes ware generated and derived from a narrow range of export of primary commodities. The prices of these primary commodities are susceptible and vulnerable to the fluctuation of world demand and supply forces. In other words, when the prices of the primary commodities are subjected to uncertainties, income generated from the primary commodities are also uncertain. This in term would affects the behaviour of the public in consumption or in holding real balances.
 
The main objective of this paper is to determine the type of expectation the people form about future income when deciding to hold real balances in a developing economy such as Malaysia. Four types of expectation formation processes are dealt with, namely, the Cobweb, extrapolative, adaptive and rational expectation hypotheses. In this section the estimating form of the model will be derived. These expectation models will be discussed in section 2 of this paper. Empirical results will then be presented in section 3. Finally, the conclusion will be presented in section 4.
 

 
The Cyclical Behaviour of Labour Productivity in the Canadian Manufacturing Industry
Jessica Lee K.G.
School of Economics and Public Administration, UUM
 
Introduction Ɩ Full Text
With the growth in Canadian industrial sector in relation to the rest of the economy, changes in output per man-hour in manufacturing necessarily become progressively more important in influencing both the standard-of living and the balance of payments of the Canadian economy.
 
An attempt is thus made to investigate empirically the importance of gross stock, unemployment rate and hours of work on the output per man-hour (measuring of labour productivity) in the Canadian manufacturing industry over the period 1946-1 983. The productivity concept, meaning and measurements are discussed in part 2. Oi's theory is discussed in part 3. A specification of a regression model of the labour productivity and data are discussed in part 4. Empirical results and analysis of the results are discussed in part 5 and followed by Implications
and conclusions in part 6.
 

 
New Paradigms In Business Research – A Commentary
Donald Wilson
Bureau of Research & Consultancy, UUM.
 
In his paper in Analysis II December 1986; Md. Zabid Abdul Rashid puts forward a theoretical construct which defines three dimensions and eight typologies of business management research. The purpose of this commentary is not to discuss his theory of inter-related disciplines and methods but to address the problem he outlines at the end of his paper.
 
‘Until Academia begins to indulge in more research in business, and until the business sector is willing to co-operate and indicate their appreciation in research, the starting point of research in business management will never see the light at the end of the tunnel.’ This sounds like a willing seller seeking an unwilling buyer in the dark.
 
It is a commonplace of business activity that a satisfied customer will continue to buy, all other things being equal. The problem is the initial 'sell-in'; and for this a clear understanding is necessary by the seller of the benefits to the customer of what he or she is trying to sell.
 
The rest of this short commentary therefore concentrates on the nature of academic research which the business would might find useful. Attempts are also made to indicate ways for a better customer contact on the part of academia in Malaysia.
 
It can be argued that to see research into business management as primarily a scientific discipline is unhelpful to both business and academia.Proper considers that the essence of scientific theory is its inherit ‘verifiability’ or ‘falsifiability’. Thus if the initial premises and methodology are clearly explained, the apparatus capable of being replicated, the results accurate and the theory rationally developed, then the theory can be tested again and again until it becomes the nearest approximation to the truth which the scientific community of that day and age can arrive at. The essence of business activities is that they are not scientific in this sense. Business judgements have often to be taken on the basis of partial, or obsolete data and in most cases it is impossible either to turn back the clock and try again or ever to carry out a verifying experiment in a similar comparable.
 

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